Guide: How to cite a Encyclopedia article in ABNT-FACE/UFMG style

Guide: How to cite a Encyclopedia article in ABNT-FACE/UFMG style

Cite A Encyclopedia article in ABNT-FACE/UFMG style

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Use the following template to cite a encyclopedia article using the ABNT-FACE/UFMG citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

Key:

Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the ABNT-FACE/UFMG style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Template:

TITLE. In: Author Surname, Author Forename. Publication Title. City: Publisher, Year Published. p. Pages Used.

Example:

Ftc.gov,. Federal Trade Commission | Protecting America's Consumers. Disponível em: <http://www.ftc.gov/>. Acesso em: 29 abr. 2015. 

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Template

(Author Surname, Year Published)

Example

Assignment 1 Section D
Evaluation of whether the South African Competition Act is efficient in their scope to identify and remedy potentially anti-competitive activities as outlined in our discussions above (a to c):
In analysing the effectiveness of the Competition Act of South Africa, one need to look at the purpose for its existence. The main purpose of the act in summary is to promote and maintain competition in the republic in order to: promote efficiency, adaptability and development of economy. Furthermore, the act strives to provide customers with competitive prices, products choices and to ensure that small and medium sized enterprises have equal business opportunities. 

The Competition Commission as an independent body with its jurisdiction in the country operates under its own act which is in line with the constitution of the republic. The commissioner must exercise its powers without any fear, favour or prejudice. It is the responsibility of the competition commission to investigate and evaluate the alleged contravention of the act, implement measures to develop public awareness of the provisions of the Act and the referral of the matters to the Competition Tribunal.

For the Act to provide better control of its activities and effectively achieve its main purpose, it must relook at some of its sections in identifying and remedy potentially anti-competitive activities. 
The South African Competition act is very efficient is in its scope to identify and remedy potentially anti – competitive activities. The act has clearly provided the definition and application of terms and behaviours that are all associated with the anti-competition activities including the following;
1.	What constitutes dominant firms and how such firms and related firms can be said to be exercising market power?
2.	What abuse of dominance is and the charging of excessive prices, refusal to grant competitor access to essential facility.
3.	The engagement in exclusionary acts.
4.	Clarified the infrastructure or resources that constitutes essential facilities 
A clear understanding of these behaviours helps to identify anti competition activities if any firm within an industry has acted in such a way. For instance, the act stipulates that a firm is dominant once it has 45% of the market. It can be seen that the act is effective because by setting the maximum share of market a single firm can have it regulates the market and levels the playing field allowing firm to fairly complete regardless of their sizes.

However the South African Competition act has got its own weaknesses that can qualify it as not efficient is in its scope to identify and remedy potentially anti – competitive activities. The act allows for exemptions to compliancy to some its sections. The exemption criterion is not that clear and can be legally challenged. Once a particular firm within an industry has been exempted from some sections of the act, this can set a precedence that other firms in the same line of business or within same industry can also be exempted to the same. Also firms can willingly engage in anti – competitive activities so long they can seek and justify exemption. 
The formalities involved when triggering a market inquiry can be limitations in themselves. For instance, the enquiry is said to be worthy doing only if it can be reasoned that there have been distortions or restrictions to competition in the market. Twenty (20) business days are required as a notice of enquiry. This is considerably too much time, enough to unnecessarily allow the parties to be investigated ample time to rectify, make corrective measures or even engage in underhand activities with the aim of distorting the outcome of the investigations.
The act could be more efficient if it carries out their enquiries without notice as the notice actually hinders the process by forewarning the parties to be investigated. Or at least the notice period should have been a matter of hours say 48 hours etc. (Ftc.gov, 2015)

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