Guide: How to cite a E-book or PDF in SPI style

Guide: How to cite a E-book or PDF in SPI style

Cite A E-book or PDF in SPI style

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Use the following template to cite a e-book or pdf using the SPI citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

Key:

Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the SPI style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Template:

Author Surname, Author Forename (Year Published): Title. City, http://Website-Url, letzter Zugriff:  10. 10. 2013.

Example:

Freeman, Tom P (2015): Potent questions about cannabis and mental health. In: The Lancet Psychiatry, H.3, Jg.2, S.195-196., http://www.thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/pdfs/14TLP0454_Di%20Forti.pdf, letzter Zugriff:  28. 4. 2015.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Template

(Author Surname Year Published, S.)

Example

Findings Between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2011, we obtained data from 410 patients with first-episode psychosis and
370 population controls. The risk of individuals having a psychotic disorder showed a roughly three-times increase in
users of skunk-like cannabis compared with those who never used cannabis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·92, 95% CI
1·52–3·45, p=0·001). Use of skunk-like cannabis every day conferred the highest risk of psychotic disorders compared
with no use of cannabis (adjusted OR 5·4, 95% CI 2·81–11·31, p=0·002). The population attributable fraction of firstepisode
psychosis for skunk use for our geographical area was 24% (95% CI 17–31), possibly because of the high
prevalence of use of high-potency cannabis (218 [53%] of 410 patients) in our study.
Interpretation The ready availability of high potency cannabis in south London might have resulted in a greater
proportion of first onset psychosis cases being attributed to cannabis use than in previous studies. (Freeman 2015, S.)

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