These are the sources and citations used to research EPS Formative Research. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
In-text: (Ashcraft and Faust, 1994)
Your Bibliography: Ashcraft, M. and Faust, M. (1994). Mathematics anxiety and mental arithmetic performance: An exploratory investigation. Cognition & Emotion, 8(2), pp.97-125.
In-text: (Becker et al., 2008)
Your Bibliography: Becker, J., Berkley, K., Geary, N., Hampson, E., Herman, J. and Young, E. (2008). Sex differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behaviour. New York: Oxford University Press.
In-text: (Bedard and Cho, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Bedard, K. and Cho, I. (2010). Early gender test score gaps across OECD countries. Economics of Education Review, 29(3), pp.348-363.
In-text: (Benbow and Stanley, 1980)
Your Bibliography: Benbow, C. and Stanley, J. (1980). Sex differences in mathematical ability: fact or artifact?. Science, 210(4475), pp.1262-1264.
In-text: (Benbow and Stanley, 1983)
Your Bibliography: Benbow, C. and Stanley, J. (1983). Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability: more facts. Science, 222(4627), pp.1029-1031.
In-text: (Betz, 1978)
Your Bibliography: Betz, N. (1978). Prevalence, distribution, and correlates of math anxiety in college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25(5), pp.441-448.
In-text: (Betzig, Borgerhoff Mulder and Turke, 1988)
Your Bibliography: Betzig, L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. and Turke, P. (1988). Human Reproductive Behaviour: A Darwinian Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.d. Laura Betzig, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, and Paul Turke. Cambridge University Press.
In-text: (Bharadwaj et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Bharadwaj, P., De Giorgi, G., Hansen, D. and Neilson, C. (2012). The Gender Gap in Mathematics: Evidence from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. NBER Working Paper No. 18464, pp.2-48.
In-text: (Campbell, 2005)
Your Bibliography: Campbell, J. (2005). Handbook of Mathematical Cognition. New York: Psychology Press, pp.315-327.
In-text: (Carrington, Tymms and Merrell, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Carrington, B., Tymms, P. and Merrell, C. (2008). Role models, school improvement and the ‘gender gap’—do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls?. British Educational Research Journal, 34(3), pp.315-327.
In-text: (Devine et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Devine, A., Fawcett, K., Szűcs, D. and Dowker, A. (2012). Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 8(1), p.33.
In-text: (Dickerson, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Dickerson, L. (2012). Gender differences in mathematics curriculum-based measurement in third through eighth grade students. Appalachian State University. Boone, NC.
In-text: (Eccles and Jacobs, 1986)
Your Bibliography: Eccles, J. and Jacobs, J. (1986). Social Forces Shape Math Attitudes and Performance. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 11(2), pp.367-380.
In-text: (Ellison and Swanson, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Ellison, G. and Swanson, A. (2010). The Gender Gap in Secondary School Mathematics at High Achievement Levels: Evidence from the American Mathematics Competitions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), pp.109-128.
In-text: (Fennema, 1974)
Your Bibliography: Fennema, E. (1974). Mathematics Learning and the Sexes: A Review. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 5(3), p.126.
In-text: (Fryer and Levitt, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Fryer, R. and Levitt, S. (2010). An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(2), pp.210-240.
In-text: (Goldin, Katz and Kuziemko, 2006)
Your Bibliography: Goldin, C., Katz, L. and Kuziemko, I. (2006). The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(4), pp.133-156.
Children and adults can ascribe to two different theories of intelligence that are associated with a constellation of attitudes and behaviors (Blackwell et al. 2007). Those who believe that intelligence is fixed (an entity theory) also tend to believe that working hard means you aren’t very smart, are motivated by performance goals that emphasize displaying their high level of ability, and tend to disengage from difficult tasks that call their ability into question (Blackwell et al. 2007; Hong et al. 1999). On the other hand, those who believe that intelligence is malleable (an incremental theory) tend to believe that working hard can help you improve at a task, are motivated by learning goals that emphasize gaining new knowledge and skills, and tend to embrace difficult tasks that provide an opportunity for learning. Incremental theories are more adaptive for academic achievement because they promote motivation to persist even after failure (Hong et al. 1999). In fact, promoting incremental theories through school-based interventions that emphasize the malleability of intelligence (e.g., lessons explaining that “the mind is a muscle”) can significantly improve students’ performance (Aronson et al. 2002; Blackwell et al. 2007; Good et al. 2003). There are gender differences in these theories of intelligence, with boys being more likely to endorse the more adaptive incremental theory of intelligence than girls (Dweck et al. 1978; Gunderson et al. 2011). As young as 8 years of age, boys hold stronger incremental theories than girls in the sociomoral and academic domains (Gunderson et al. 2011). These gender differences persist through later ages as well (Dweck et al. 1978).
In-text: (Gunderson et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Gunderson, E., Ramirez, G., Levine, S. and Beilock, S. (2012). The Role of Parents and Teachers in the Development of Gender-Related Math Attitudes. Sex Roles, 66(3-4), pp.153-166.
In-text: (Hargreaves, Homer and Swinnerton, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Hargreaves, M., Homer, M. and Swinnerton, B. (2008). A comparison of performance and attitudes in mathematics amongst the ‘gifted’. Are boys better at mathematics or do they just think they are?. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 15(1), pp.19-38.
In-text: (Hyde, 1981)
Your Bibliography: Hyde, J. (1981). How large are cognitive gender differences? A meta-analysis using W² and D. American Psychologist, 36(8), pp.892-901.
In-text: (Hyde and Mertz, 2009)
Your Bibliography: Hyde, J. and Mertz, J. (2009). Gender, culture, and mathematics performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(22), pp.8801-8807.
In-text: (Hyde et al., 2008)
Your Bibliography: Hyde, J., Lindberg, S., Linn, M., Ellis, A. and Williams, C. (2008). Gender Similarities Characterize Math Performance. Science, 321(5888), pp.494-495.
In-text: (Jacobs, 1991)
Your Bibliography: Jacobs, J. (1991). Influence of gender stereotypes on parent and child mathematics attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(4), pp.518-527.
In-text: (Joensen and Nielsen, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Joensen, J. and Nielsen, H. (2013). Math and Gender: Is Math a Route to a High-Powered Career?. SSRN Electronic Journal.
In-text: (Keller, 2007)
Your Bibliography: Keller, J. (2007). Stereotype threat in classroom settings: The interactive effect of domain identification, task difficulty and stereotype threat on female students' maths performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(2), pp.323-338.
In-text: (Kenney-Benson et al., 2006)
Your Bibliography: Kenney-Benson, G., Pomerantz, E., Ryan, A. and Patrick, H. (2006). Sex differences in math performance: The role of children's approach to schoolwork. Developmental Psychology, 42(1), pp.11-26.
In-text: (Leahey and Guo, 2001)
Your Bibliography: Leahey, E. and Guo, G. (2001). Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories. Social Forces, 80(2), pp.713-732.
In-text: (Lewis-Beck, Bryman and Liao, 2004)
Your Bibliography: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. and Liao, T. (2004). The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
In-text: (Muller, 1998)
Your Bibliography: Muller, C. (1998). Gender Differences in Parental Involvement and Adolescents' Mathematics Achievement. Sociology of Education, 71(4), p.336.
In-text: (Niederle and Vesterlund, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Niederle, M. and Vesterlund, L. (2010). Explaining the Gender Gap in Math Test Scores: The Role of Competition. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), pp.129-144.
In-text: (Nosek, Banaji and Greenwald, 2002)
Your Bibliography: Nosek, B., Banaji, M. and Greenwald, A. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math ≠ me. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), pp.44-59.
In-text: (Penner and Paret, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Penner, A. and Paret, M. (2008). Gender differences in mathematics achievement: Exploring the early grades and the extremes. Social Science Research, 37(1), pp.239-253.
In-text: (Piaget, 1957)
Your Bibliography: Piaget, J. (1957). Construction of Reality in The Child. London: Routledge.
In-text: (Piaget, 1962)
Your Bibliography: Piaget, J. (1962). The role of imitation in the development of representational thought. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
In-text: (Pope and Sydnor, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Pope, D. and Sydnor, J. (2010). Geographic Variation in the Gender Differences in Test Scores. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), pp.95-108.
In-text: (Roberts-Holmes, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Roberts-Holmes, G. (2011). Doing your Early Years Research Project - A Step by Step Guide. 2nd ed. London: SAGE.
In-text: (Robinson-Cimpian et al., 2014)
Your Bibliography: Robinson-Cimpian, J., Lubienski, S., Ganley, C. and Copur-Gencturk, Y. (2014). Teachers’ perceptions of students’ mathematics proficiency may exacerbate early gender gaps in achievement. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), pp.1262-1281.
In-text: (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968)
Your Bibliography: Rosenthal, R. and Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
In-text: (Schwery, Hulac and Schweinle, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Schwery, D., Hulac, D. and Schweinle, A. (2016). Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 10(4), pp.386-396.
Gunderson et al. (2011) detail how negative stereotypes about women’s math abilities are transmitted to girls by their parents and teachers, shaping girls’ math attitudes and ultimately undermining performance and interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. The social psychological phenomenon of stereotype threat complements this approach and demonstrates the additional ways in which gender-related math attitudes undermine girls’ and women’s interest and performance in STEM domains. Considering the phenomenon of stereotype threat also identifies how stereotypes and other gender-related math attitudes can undermine women’s and girls’ interest and performance in STEM domains even when women and girls have positive math attitudes.
In-text: (Shapiro and Williams, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Shapiro, J. and Williams, A. (2011). The Role of Stereotype Threats in Undermining Girls’ and Women’s Performance and Interest in STEM Fields. Sex Roles, 66(3-4), pp.175-183.
In-text: (Shields, 1982)
Your Bibliography: Shields, S. (1982). The Variability Hypothesis: The History of a Biological Model of Sex Differences in Intelligence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 7(4), pp.769-797.
In-text: (Shih, Pittinsky and Ambady, 1999)
Your Bibliography: Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. and Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance. Psychological Science, 10(1), pp.80-83.
Spencer et al. (1999) found that women experience a similar outcome in the domain of math. In one experiment, men and women were randomly assigned to learn either that a difficult math test had shown gender differences in the past or that it had not shown gender differences in the past.When participants were told the test had not shown gender differences, men and women performed similarly on the test. However, when participants were told the test had shown gender differences, women performed significantly worse on the test compared to men.
In-text: (Spencer, Steele and Quinn, 1999)
Your Bibliography: Spencer, S., Steele, C. and Quinn, D. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, pp.4-28.
In-text: (Stoet and Geary, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Stoet, G. and Geary, D. (2012). Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement?. Review of General Psychology, 16(1), pp.93-102.
In-text: (Susac et al., 2014)
Your Bibliography: Susac, A., Bubic, A., Vrbanc, A. and Planinic, M. (2014). Development of abstract mathematical reasoning: the case of algebra. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.
In-text: (Van de Walle, Karp and Bay-Williams, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Van de Walle, J., Karp, K. and Bay-Williams, J. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics teaching developmentally. Boston: Pearson.
In-text: (Wigfield and Meece, 1988)
Your Bibliography: Wigfield, A. and Meece, J. (1988). Math anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), pp.210-216.
In-text: (Wilson, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Wilson, E. (2012). School-based Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
In-text: (Yin, 2009)
Your Bibliography: Yin, R. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.
In-text: (Yüksel-Şahin, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Yüksel-Şahin, F. (2008). Mathematics Anxiety among 4th and 5th grade Turkish Elementary School Students. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(3), pp.179-192.
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