These are the sources and citations used to research Discuss Menschlichkeit in Brecht's Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
In-text: (Brecht, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Brecht, B., 2013. Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis. 31st ed. Berlin: Suhrkamp-Verlag.
das Sein, Dasein als Mensch, als menschliches Wesen menschliche Haltung und Gesinnung (selten) menschliche Schwäche, Fehlhandlung
In-text: (Duden | Menschlichkeit | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition, Synonyme, Herkunft, 2017)
Your Bibliography: Duden.de. 2017. Duden | Menschlichkeit | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition, Synonyme, Herkunft. [online] Available at: <http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/Menschlichkeit> [Accessed 12 April 2017].
Being is not a given (however tempting it may be to assume it is) but a problem, and so too is humanity, that is, what counts as being human and on what grounds, and with what implications for how we should behave. p1 Secondly, and more importantly, every society poses, for us, the problems not just of what its members came up with, by way of understandings of the world around them, but also of how they saw their own place in that world, their humanity in other words, and how they should live their lives. p3 Jean-Pierre Vernant, together with his colleagues Marcel Detienne and Pierre Vidal-Naquet, developed an influential argument according to which for the ancient Greeks, what it is to be human was defined by a triadic relationship, in which humans are sandwiched between gods on the one hand, and the other animals on the other. p8 Is the question of what is distinctive about humans perceived as a problem, or is the concern not with other animals versus us, but with the differences between different human groups, between us and others, outsiders, strangers, enemies, who may or may not be humans exactly like us? p8 Humans in between ate bread, died, and entered into communication with the gods by means of sacrifices, of animals, or of incense, or cakes. p12 (beast, human, God; compare to id, ego, superego?) (p 12) But Plato’s most influential doctrine related rather to (p.13) his notion of a tripartite soul. The appetitive and the spirited parts, which humans share with other animals, should be under the control of the rational faculty, the logistikon, which in the Timaeus (though not, it is true, so clearly in other dialogues) alone is immortal.12 This is very much a human faculty, and in the fanciful account of the generation of other creatures which we are given at the end of that dialogue, they arise when they lose their reason, nous (Timaeus 92bc). Aristotle knew a lot about animals, more than any other ancient Greek, but he too drove a wedge between humans and them by way of the reasoning faculty, though there are considerable complications. None of that stopped him from insisting, in general terms, that it is reason that marks out humans. p13 Secondly, the problem about using morality to differentiate humans is that, as the Chinese like the Greeks were very well aware, human views on right and wrong differ widely. That made it difficult to maintain that all humans share the same sense of what righteousness is, or even the same sense of its importance. The moral sense has often been used to suggest not what all humans share, but what many humans lack. p15
In-text: (Lloyd, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Lloyd, G., 2012. Being, humanity, and understanding. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Definition of humanity plural humanities 1 : compassionate, sympathetic, or generous behavior or disposition : the quality or state of being humane bespeaking humanity for the enemy in the midst of a bloody struggle — C. G. Bowers 2 a : the quality or state of being human joined together by their common humanity b humanities plural : human attributes or qualities his work has the ripeness of the 18th century, and its rough humanities — Pamela H. Johnson 3 humanities plural : the branches of learning (as philosophy, arts, or languages) that investigate human constructs (see 2construct 1a) and concerns as opposed to natural processes (as in physics or chemistry) and social relations (as in anthropology or economics) 4 : the totality of human beings : the human race : humankind a fierce compassion for the woes of humanity — Maurice Bowra
In-text: (Definition of HUMANITY, 2017)
Your Bibliography: Merriam-webster.com. 2017. Definition of HUMANITY. [online] Available at: <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/humanity> [Accessed 6 April 2017].
humanity NOUN mass noun 1Human beings collectively. ‘appalling crimes against humanity’ More example sentencesSynonyms 1.1 The state of being human. ‘our differences matter but our common humanity matters more’ More example sentencesSynonyms 2The quality of being humane; benevolence. ‘he praised them for their standards of humanity and care’
In-text: (humanity - definition of humanity in English | Oxford Dictionaries, 2017)
Your Bibliography: Oxford Dictionaries | English. 2017. humanity - definition of humanity in English | Oxford Dictionaries. [online] Available at: <https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/humanity> [Accessed 6 April 2017].
From the Latin word for 'it', the id is the primitive, unconscious part of the mind that we are born with. The other parts of the mind are derived from this oldest, primeval part, which contains everything that is inherited. It is a dark, inaccessible area, seething with instinctive urges and its only reality is its own selfish needs. p126 Named from the latin word for 'I', the ego is the part of the mind that reacts to external reality and which a person thinks of as the 'self' The ego is where the consciousness comes from, although not all of its functions are carried out consciously. p127 As the ego struggles to keep the id happy, it constantly meets up with both obstacles and helpers in the external world. It keeps a track record of these, and also of rewards and punishments that it has encountered, particularly from parents and other adults. This is how the super-ego develops: gradually a sort of inner parent evolves and the child develops feelings of guilt and of being watched and controlled. One aspect of this super-ego is what we would call the conscience- the part of ourselves that tells us what is right and what is wrong and judges our behaviour accordingly; but the super-ego also carries out self-observation, which is an essential preliminary to the judging process. p129
In-text: (Snowden, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Snowden, R., 2011. Freud. 1st ed. London: Teach Yourself.
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