These are the sources and citations used to research Thesis. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
McCoy et al. is a good example of how some articles do not take consumer privacy into account at all, and merely focus on whether or not OBA works as a marketing technique. I will use this piece to show that there is an incomplete conversation on the effects of OBA on individual privacy.
In-text: (McCoy et al., 2007)
Your Bibliography: McCoy, S., Everard, A., Polak, P. and Galletta, D. (2007). The Effects of Online Advertising. Communications of the ACM, 50(3), pp.84-88.
Ur et al. conducted 48 interviews with non-technical users to find public perceptions about OBA, both in an understanding of what OBA is (how it works), as well as attitudes towards OBA. Ur et al. find a wide range of attitudes towards OBA, spanning from an appreciation for what the goal is (increased interest in online ads from the consumer side, and better click-through rates from the marketer side), to a rejection of OBA. The most common concern for users was a general notion of privacy violation. This study provides evidence that people are actively wary towards OBA, but shows how the current literature is insufficient in analyzing user concerns, specifically the feeling of embarrassment and reluctance to use internet search functions.
In-text: (Ur et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Ur, B., Leon, P., Cranor, L., Shay, R. and Wang, Y. (2012). Smart, useful, scary, creepy: Perceptions of Online Behavioral Advertising. In: Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security. Washington, DC, pp.1-12.
Ashworth and Free take the discussion of targeted ads in the direction of justice, showing how some people find the consumer-marketer relationship to be unfair. Through this lens people may find OBA unjust because of the information and data collecting procedure, even if they perceive the exchange of information for ads to be fair. This introduces an anger from the consumer side that shows people might not necessarily reject OBA, but find the current process unfair.
In-text: (Ashworth and Free, 2006)
Your Bibliography: Ashworth, L. and Free, C. (2006). Marketing Dataveillance and Digital Privacy: Using Theories of Justice to Understand Consumers' Online Privacy Concerns. Journal of Business Ethics, 67(2), pp.107-123.
O'Donnell and Cramer conducted a shallow online survey (N=296) to assess user attitudes towards personalized advertising, and performed in-depth interviews (N=24) for conversations on attitude toward personalization, experiences with OBA, and to analyze live reactions to ads on screen of personal devices. These findings provide some perceptions on OBA and will be used to show that some people find it invasive while others do not. More importantly several of the interviewees felt some data collection oversteps boundaries of private lives, but still expect it to happen.
In-text: (O'Donnell and Cramer, 2018)
Your Bibliography: O'Donnell, K. and Cramer, H. (2018). People's Perceptions of Personalized Ads. In: Conference on World Wide Web. New York, NY: ACM.
Balebako et al. provide a method for evaluating the effectiveness of three tools for controlling OBA consumers receive. They present a results that show how each tool fares relative to each other at limiting text-based behavioral Google ads. This study is limited to that type of ad only, but is useful for showing what options exist in the online world, and that the most prevalent ones (Do Not Track tools) are essentially useless. This paper helps prove my point that better knowledge of better tools is necessary for a more ethical relationship between marketers and consumers.
In-text: (Balebako et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Balebako, R., Leon, P., Shay, R., Ur, B., Wang, Y. and Cranor, L. (2012). Measuring the Effectiveness of Privacy Tools for Limiting Online Behavioral Advertising.
This study extends the discussion of OBA to embarrassment and blocking/filtering tools. Agarwal et al. perform a study in India consisting of 53 interviews on users' concerns towards OBA and gets to the notion of embarrassment where other studies did not. They find that the interviewees pro-actively used the word "embarrassing" or a synonym of it to describe their concerns. This study is one that I will be expanding on to show that there is a concern for embarrassing ads being displayed on a personal device that suggests something undesirable. I will extend this to an infringement of privacy, which Agarwal et al. neglect to do. Finally there are several recommendations for blocking/filtering that I will discuss in my conclusion section.
In-text: (Agarwal et al., 2013)
Your Bibliography: Agarwal, L., Shrivastava, N., Jaiswal, S. and Panjwani, S. (2013). Do Not Embarrass: Re-Examining User Concerns for Online Tracking and Advertising. In: Ninth Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security. New York, NY: ACM.
This report from the Pew Research Center provides extensive information on search engine use including popularity of using search engines, and feelings towards personal information being collected. The survey finds that 73% of search engine users are not okay with a search engine keeping track of searches, and 68% of all internet users feel like their privacy is invaded through targeted advertising. This report provides substantial statistical information on negative attitudes towards OBA with a large sample size (N=2,253), and will be used to show the prevalence of negative attitudes towards targeted advertising in Americans.
In-text: (Pew Research Center, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Pew Research Center (2012). Search Engine Use 2012. [online] Pew Research Center. Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/2012/03/09/search-engine-use-2012/ [Accessed 21 Feb. 2018].
Turow et al. discuss the uneven relationship between online markers and online users. Their survey discovers that 66% of adult Americans are against tailored advertisements, and that number increases to between 73% and 86% when interviewees are informed of the ways ads are personalized and online behavior is used. This study will provide my paper with empirical evidence that Americans are distrustful of online marketers and that the relationship is abusive as marketers claim online users prefer their information is tracked to deliver personalized ads. Turow et al. take a policy recommendation approach which does not pertain to my proposed solutions for an improved online marketer-user relationship. This study does provide substantial information on widespread concern for information privacy across all age groups.
In-text: (Turow et al., 2009)
Your Bibliography: Turow, J., King, J., Hoofnatle, C., Bleakley, A. and Hennessy, M. (2009). Americans Reject Tailored Advertising and Three Activities That Enable It.
Joseph Turow's report shows how lopsided the consumer-marketer system can be due to consumers knowing incredibly little about where their information is going. This report provides data on how few Americans understand what information is available to businesses online, and how that information is used. Even if this information is non-personally identifiable it is unfair that people are subjected to their internet use being tracked without their total knowledge or understanding. Even though there are agreements in place to give this access to businesses, consumers are not aware of the full extent of that access, and fear the worst due to a lack of clear-cut information. This piece will be useful to show the unfair and unethical relationship between consumer and marketer. A one-sided flow of information causes privacy concerns and discomfort.
In-text: (Turow, 2003)
Your Bibliography: Turow, J. (2003). Americans Online Privacy: The System is Broken. A report from The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania.
Bart et al. provide a good early empirical study on online trust and, more importantly, a definition of privacy and information risk. This idea refers to the uncertainty that comes with providing personal information online and that information being exposed. Bart et al. use the example of a website asking for information for one thing and then using it for another, or multiple other, purposes. This fear, even if not as prevalent, is an example of why people are afraid of personal information being available to websites. I will use Bart et al. to show consumer uncertainty and to provide a definition of information risk to structure my essay.
In-text: (Bart et al., 2005)
Your Bibliography: Bart, Y., Shankar, V., Sultan, F. and Urban, G. (2005). Are the Drivers and Role of Online Trust the Same for All Web Sites and Consumers? A Large-Scale Exploratory Empirical Study. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), pp.133-152.
In-text: (Solove, 2004)
Your Bibliography: Solove, D. (2004). The Digital Person. New York: New York University Press.
In-text: (Statista, 2017)
Your Bibliography: Statista. (2017). How many connected devices do you currently use?. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/367740/number-connected-devices-per-person-us/.
In-text: (Geary, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Geary, J. (2012). DoubleClick (Google): What is it and what does it do?. [online] The Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/apr/23/doubleclick-tracking-trackers-cookies-web-monitoring.
In-text: (Foucault, 1977)
Your Bibliography: Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish. New York: Vintage Books, pp.195-199.
In-text: (Blanchette and Johnson, 2002)
Your Bibliography: Blanchette, J. and Johnson, D. (2002). Data Retention and the Panoptic Society: The Social Benefits of Forgetfulness. Taylor & Francis: The Information Society, 18, pp.33-45.
In-text: (Kohn, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Kohn, M. (2010). Unblinking: Citizens and Subjects in the Age of Video Surveillance. Constellations, 17(4), pp.572-580.
In-text: (Kateb, 2001)
Your Bibliography: Kateb, G. (2001). On Being Watched and Known. Social Research, [online] 68(1), pp.269-295. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40971451.
In-text: (Sengupta, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Sengupta, S. (2013). Privacy Fears Grow as Cities Increase Surveillance. [online] New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/14/technology/privacy-fears-as-surveillance-grows-in-cities.html.
In-text: (Olmstead, 2017)
Your Bibliography: Olmstead, K. (2017). Most Americans think the government could be monitoring their phone calls and emails. [online] Pew Research Center. Available at: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/27/most-americans-think-the-government-could-be-monitoring-their-phone-calls-and-emails/.
In-text: (United Parcel Service, 2016)
Your Bibliography: United Parcel Service (2016). UPS Pulse of the Online Shopper: Tech-savvy shoppers transforming retail. [online] p.5. Available at: https://pressroom.ups.com/assets/pdf/pressroom/white%20paper/2016_UPS_Pulse%20of%20the%20Online%20Shopper_white%20paper%20final.pdf.
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