These are the sources and citations used to research Critically assess how feminism has changed criminology. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
'There are 84,731 people in prison in Britain.' '80,915 are men, less than 5% of the prison population are female.' 'most criminologists point to socialised gender roles and the different gender expectations of male and female behaviour.'
In-text: (Abrahams, 2015)
Your Bibliography: Abrahams, J. (2015). Are men natural born criminals? Prison numbers don't lie. The Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/11342408/Are-men-natural-born-criminals-Prison-numbers-dont-lie.html [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].
'Although important risk factors for brothers and sisters were similar, there were some gender differences. For example, socio-economic and child rearing were more important for sisters, and parental characteristics were more predictive of offenders for brothers.' (page,1) 'deception offences (27% of sisters’ offences; 12% of brothers’ offences).' (page,2)
In-text: (Farrington and Painter, n.d.)
Your Bibliography: Farrington, D. and Painter, K. (n.d.). Gender differences in risk factors for offending. Findings. [online] London: TABS, pp.1-2. Available at: http://www.crim.cam.ac.uk/people/academic_research/david_farrington/hofind196.pdf [Accessed 8 Jan. 2018].
‘it has long been established within gender scholarship that men are more likely to commit murder than women are, although debate prevails as to whether this is due to physiological factors such as hormonal differences or gender socialisation which promotes and condones male violence while encouraging women to be passive.’
In-text: (Fenton, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Fenton, S. (2016). Nine in ten murders are committed by men, research finds. Independent, [online] p.1. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/nine-in-ten-murders-are-committed-by-men-research-finds-a7095861.html [Accessed 8 Jan. 2018].
‘there is no orthodox methodology in feminist criminology. Rather, there are a series of methodological preferences that feminist adopt as a means of presuming research questions.’
In-text: (Mason and Stubbs, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Mason, G. and Stubbs, J. (2010). Feminist approach to criminological research. [online] Sydney: University of Sydney, p.1. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228134204_Feminist_Approaches_to_Criminological_Research [Accessed 8 Jan. 2018].
'More males are dealt with more severely including imprisonment.'
In-text: (Men and Women and the Criminal Justice System, 2015)
Your Bibliography: Men and Women and the Criminal Justice System. (2015). [ebook] Parity UK, p.1. Available at: http://www.parity-uk.org/Briefing/MenandWomenandtheCJSfComplete.pdf [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].
'Lombroso and Ferrero's work on the female criminal concluded that there were few born female criminals than males.' (pg.309) 'The most common form of regression for the woman, Lombroso and Ferrero argued was prostitution.' (pg.309) 'The idea of biological differences that are the primary cause of the male and female offending has diapered from criminology through Gelsthrope (2002).'
In-text: (Newburn, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Newburn, T. (2013). Criminology. 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge, pp.308-352.
'Criminality of women has long been neglected in the subject area of criminology.' (pg, 328) 'Many explanations have been advanced for this, such as woman's low official rate of crime and delinquency and the preponderance of male theorists in the field.'
In-text: (Newburn and Klein, 2009)
Your Bibliography: Newburn, T. and Klein, D. (2009). Key Readings in Criminology. Cullompton: Willan Publishing, p.328.
'a person harmed, injured, or killed as result of a crime, accident, or other event or action.'
In-text: (Oxford Dictionaries | English, 2018)
Your Bibliography: Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2018). victim | Definition of victim in English by Oxford Dictionaries. [online] Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/victim [Accessed 7 Jan. 2018].
'Men commit violent crime than women by a mile. Around 85%-90% of convicted murderers are men, a majority of the domestic abusers and pretty much all those committing sexual attacks.'
In-text: (Quentin-Woolf, 2015)
Your Bibliography: Quentin-Woolf, N. (2015). Our attitude to violence against men is outdated. The Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/10752232/Our-attitude-to-violence-against-men-is-out-of-date.html [Accessed 7 Jan. 2018].
'Feminist theories are a group of related theories that share several principles in common, to maintain gender and that it is central to organising component of social life, including criminal offending and victimisation.'
In-text: (Renzetti, 2016)
Your Bibliography: Renzetti, C. (2016). Feminist Theories - Criminology - Oxford Bibliographies - obo. [online] Oxfordbibliographies.com. Available at: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0013.xml [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].
'Criminologists have periodically emphasised the social and moral implications of trend away from traditional female roles, towards more liberated conditions.'
In-text: (Smart, 1979)
Your Bibliography: Smart, C. (1979). The new Female Criminal: Reality or Myth?. The British Journal of Criminology, [online] 19(01), pp.50-59. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjc.a046960 [Accessed 3 Jan. 2018].
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