Guide: How to cite a Dictionary entry in Brain style

Guide: How to cite a Dictionary entry in Brain style

Cite A Dictionary entry in Brain style

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Use the following template to cite a dictionary entry using the Brain citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the Brain style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


Author Surname Author Initial. Title [Internet]. Publication Title Year Published: Pages Used.[cited 2013 Oct 10] Available from: http://Website-Url


Giordano G, Ohlsson H, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Kendler K. The association between cannabis abuse and subsequent schizophrenia: a Swedish national co-relative control study [Internet]. Psychological Medicine 2014; 45: 407-414.[cited 2015 Apr 27] Available from:

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.


(Author Surname, Year Published)


Results Within the general Swedish population, CA was strongly associated with later schizophrenia [odds ratio (OR) 10.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.99–12.11]. This association was substantially attenuated both by increasing temporal delays between CA exposure and schizophrenia diagnosis and by controlling for increasing degrees of familial confounding. Extrapolated discordant MZ pairs suggested that fully controlling for confounding familial factors reduced the association between CA and later schizophrenia to more modest levels (ORs of approximately 3.3 and 1.6 with 3- and 7-year temporal delays respectively). Opiate, sedative, cocaine/stimulant and hallucinogen abuse were also strongly associated with subsequent schizophrenia in the general population. After controlling for familial confounding, only cocaine/stimulant exposure remained associated.
Conclusions CA has an appreciable causal impact on future risk for schizophrenia. However, population-based estimates of cannabis–schizophrenia co-morbidity substantially overestimate their causal association. Predictions of the cases of schizophrenia that might be prevented by reduced cannabis consumption based on population associations are therefore likely to be considerably overestimated. (Giordano et al., 2014)

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