Guide: How to cite a Patent in JAPAN style
Cite A Patent in JAPAN style
Use the following template to cite a patent using the JAPAN citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.
Key:Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the JAPAN style.
Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.
Author Surname, A., Year Published: Title. Location.
vzlzgziae, v., 1979: kkbng njtax for 63% gqxbdq7. vzlzgziae, Thailand.
Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.
(Author Surname, Year Published)
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More than a quarter of all violators lack license plates, including many deliberate scofflaws.The struggle to reduce violations has resulted in ongoing tweaks to the system 鈥?but limited success.鈥淲e aren鈥檛 complacent about this,鈥?said Rancho Santa Margarita City Councilman Anthony Beall, a board member of the toll roads鈥?Transportation Corridor Agencies. 鈥淲e鈥檙e going to continue to look at how we can address it. It鈥檚 important to our bottom line 鈥?that鈥檚 how we pay our bills.鈥漈CA, which runs the 73, 133, 241 and 261 toll roads, saw violations soar 140 percent when they removed the toll collection booths in favor of a system that requires motorists to use a FasTrak transponder or pay online, according to TCA data.That means 4.75 million trips were determined to be violations from June through January. Of those, 2.85 million trips were later paid for when the drivers were sent a ticket. At an average toll of $3.49 for those not using the transponders, that amounts to $6.6 million in unpaid tolls for the period.Attempted fixes HNTB, a transportation management firm, tells prospective clients that violations will account for 7 percent to 10 percent of all traffic after manned toll booths are removed.TCA鈥檚 launch of its cashless system in May saw unpaid toll violations account for 8.5 percent of all trips. That percentage has continued through January, the most recent month for which the Register obtained data.But while TCA鈥檚 violation rate falls in the middle of HNTB鈥檚 scale, it鈥檚 notably higher than that of the Orange County Transportation Authority, which runs toll lanes on the 91 freeway. OCTA registered a 5.7 percent rate of violations last year, according to OCTA data.Differences in TCA鈥檚 and OCTA鈥檚 toll operations may help OCTA achieve a lower rate, but the 91 express lane operator is widely seen as running a superior program.鈥淚鈥檇 say OCTA does it about as well as you can do it,鈥?said county Supervisor Shawn Nelson, who sits on the boards of OCTA and TCA. 鈥淭CA should turn the toll roads over to OCTA.鈥滵rivers without a transponder or a TCA ExpressAccount were initially required to pay the toll online within 48 hours. In January, TCA decided to extend the grace period to five days to give drivers more time to avoid a violation.From the outset, TCA anticipated that confusion over the new system would result in unintentional violators 鈥?those without transponders or ExpressAccounts who failed to pay the toll online. So it offered a fine amnesty to those who paid their original toll within 30 days of receiving a violation notice.That amnesty was planned to run through last Labor Day, but is being continued indefinitely because of the ongoing volume of first-time violators.Other efforts to reduce confusion and violations have included updating more than 400 road signs, working with tourist and rental car operations to inform visitors how the system works, and hiring 26 temporary employees to handle the flood of customer service calls and emails.鈥淲e have no goals for how many violations occur on our routes,鈥?said TCA spokeswoman Sarah King. 鈥淥ur goal is to educate drivers and collect the tolls from drivers who travel on our toll roads. It cannot be overlooked that 91.5 percent of our drivers are paying.鈥漇cofflaws Cars on toll roads without license plates can often get away without paying because security camera photos of tags are used to send out tickets to those who don鈥檛 pay. It鈥檚 a statewide problem, costing toll road agencies throughout the state $15 million in fiscal year 2013-14, according to Metropolitan Transportation Commission.TCA felt a significant portion of that pain, racking up $3.8 million in tolls lost to drivers without license plates who didn鈥檛 pay in fiscal 2013-14. That was up 38 percent from the previous year.Many of these vehicles are newly purchased from dealers 鈥?owners are required to put permanent plates on their cars within 90 days, although some take far longer. And many of those who don鈥檛 have plates are deliberately gaming the system by not paying, according to CHP spokesman Aaron Rothberg.鈥淭here鈥檚 a lot of people who do that,鈥?Rothberg said. 鈥淭here are a lot of repeat offenders. If they鈥檙e doing it repeatedly, it鈥檚 not an accident.鈥漁CTA is the only tolling agency in the state that saw its number of license-less cars drop last year, with a 3 percent decrease. OCTA spokesman Joel Zlotnik said that beefed up enforcement was one key to addressing the issue.Agencies contract with California Highway Patrol for toll road enforcement, and OCTA decided to increase its enforcement effort. Now, the CHP spends more time looking for and pulling over cars without license plates on the 91 toll lanes.Proposed legislation last year to require temporary license plates on newly purchased vehicles, with car dealers picking up the cost of implementation, died in committee. An identical bill has been introduced this year, although Nelson and Beall think a better alternative would be to have dealers distribute permanent plates at the time of purchase.鈥淲hy not just give dealers a stack of plates?鈥?Nelson said. 鈥淚t鈥檚 not that complicated. People are using this as an opportunity not to pay the toll.鈥漃redictably, the scofflaws don鈥檛 sit well with those who regularly pay the tolls.鈥淚 am sure these folks think they are getting over on the toll road but they are really hurting their fellow commuters,鈥?said Mission Viejo鈥檚 Michael Mackessy, an IT manager and regular user of the roads. 鈥淚t鈥檚 like shoplifting in that others have to pay for a few people鈥檚 theft and the criminals think they are not hurting anyone.鈥滲ottom line TCA says one reason for eliminating the toll booths is driver convenience and safety, while another is cost efficiency. While estimates call for an annual average of $3.9 million savings in operating costs over 10 years, no savings was expected the first year because of transition costs, King said.Additionally, the number of violations and user complaints have been higher than anticipated, increasing customer service and toll compliance expenses, she said.Nonetheless, TCA is doing better than projected overall since the change and toll revenue is up from a year ago, according to Amy Potter, TCA鈥檚 chief financial officer.While violations are up 140 percent, TCA is eventually collecting the tolls from a higher percentage of violators. 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