Guide: How to cite a Government publication in IJDB style

Guide: How to cite a Government publication in IJDB style

Cite A Government publication in IJDB style

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Use the following template to cite a government publication using the IJDB citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the IJDB style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


Author Surname Author Initial (Year Published). Title. Publisher, City.


Lippman, P (2010). Can the physical environment have an impact on the learning environment. Available at: [Accessed May 1, 2015].

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.


(Author Surname, Year Published)


A responsive design approach would embrace the educational ideology, practice theory, which
describes the interaction between learner and environment, and link this to the concept of responsive
commissioning, a research approach that explores the nature of the interaction between the social
and physical aspects of the learning environment. The designer can then create an environment that
is more responsive to the needs of 21st century education. Prac tice theory:
interac tion between learner and learning environment
Researchers and designers of learning environments often debate whether the learner should adapt to
the learning environment or whether the learning environment should adapt to them. Arguably this
is the wrong question. A better question is: how does the environment shape the learner and, in turn,
how does the learner influence the learning environment? In other words: what is the transactional
relationship of the learning environment? This involves understanding the motivations of the learner
with respect to the time and place in which s/he acquires knowledge (Lave and Wenger, 1991). The
learning environment in this context is composed of the learner, other students and teachers and the
physical environment.
Twenty-first century learning environments are envisioned as places where the learner is engaged in
self-directed and co-operative learning activities, and the physical environment is planned so that it
can be routinely re-organised to mediate learning (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2002). Therefore,
20th century constructivist concepts which view the learner as active and the learning environment as
CELE Exchange 2010/13 – ISSN 2072-7925 – © OECD 2010
Can the physical environment have an impact on the learning environment?
passive should be replaced with a new perspective. Practice theory recognises that the learner and the
learning environment are active (Dent-Read and Zukow-Goldring, 1997). In the constructivist setting,
students learn from their own discoveries, whereas with practice theory learners are transformed and
shaped by their transactions alongside others and their physical settings.Integrating technology fully into the learning environment
In terms of innovation, the 21st century learning ideals are not so different from Reggio Emilia and
Montessori pedagogies. Both aspired to engage learners in activities with a variety of tools. Furthermore,
these alterative programmes are places where faculty and students are motivated to extend their
development beyond their current level of knowledge. On the whole, the goals foster critical thinking,
social skills (through co-operative activities) and self-directed work. Whereas Reggio Emilia viewed the
physical environment as the “third teacher” who guides learning, Montessori recognised that it must be
prepared with tools to promote learning opportunities. Similarly, 21st century learning environments
are using today’s tools (i.e. information technologies) which are believed to guide the learner and lead
development (Vygotsky, 1978).
Montessori developed teaching tools that encouraged learners to explore their environments through selfdirected
and co-operative learning activities. At the time, this was an innovative and modern approach.
Since the early 1900s, technology, beginning with film, then radio, television and video were brought
into the learning environment (Oliver, 2004); currently, the computer, tablets and SMART boards have
been introduced into instructional settings. However, none of these past or current technologies are
being fully integrated into educational programmes, as was anticipated (Weiss, 2007 The responsive design approach understands the transactional relationship between learners and their
learning environment and that sustainable design does not merely signify the integration of green
principles, but rather how the learning environment – social and physical – can contribute to the
development of the learner. This approach does not assume that any place has been ideally designed,
but it is used to reveal its advantages and constraints.learning is situated in time and place (Altman, 1992). (Lippman, 2010)

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