These are the sources and citations used to research 1800-1900s racist advertisements. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    Race and Identity

    2021

    William H. West, Minstrel Show, 1900, Lithograph​

    In-text: (Race and Identity, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Art History Teaching Resources. 2021. Race and Identity. [online] Available at: <https://arthistoryteachingresources.org/lessons/race-and-identity/> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Race and Identity

    2021

    This is a good example of an advertisement meant to sell tickets for a minstrel show. As you can see, blackface is exhibited here with the stereotypical facial features and hair of the “black man.” This is only one example of many depictions of African Americans in the United States that align with a particularly negative perception of African Americans, especially in the post-Civil War period. It is important to remember that before the Civil War, slaves were often depicted as “mammies” or other benevolent servants.​

    In-text: (Race and Identity, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Art History Teaching Resources. 2021. Race and Identity. [online] Available at: <https://arthistoryteachingresources.org/lessons/race-and-identity/> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Ad, Poster - Elliott’s White Veneer Paint, See How it Covers Over Black, Elliott Paint & Varnish Co. Chicago - 1935

    2021

    "Elliott Paint and Varnish Co. was founded in 1897. It rapidly blossomed into a full line paint manufacturer. During the 1970s, it was acquired by Valspar.​"

    In-text: (Ad, Poster - Elliott’s White Veneer Paint, See How it Covers Over Black, Elliott Paint & Varnish Co. Chicago - 1935, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Flickr. 2021. Ad, Poster - Elliott’s White Veneer Paint, See How it Covers Over Black, Elliott Paint & Varnish Co. Chicago - 1935. [online] Available at: <https://www.flickr.com/photos/78469770@N00/33635000138> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Hoepf, T.

    Paul Colin posters: Jazz Age masterpieces

    2021

    Paul Colins, ‘La Revue Nègre’ (1925)​

    In-text: (Hoepf, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Hoepf, T., 2021. Paul Colin posters: Jazz Age masterpieces. [online] Auction Central News. Available at: <https://www.liveauctioneers.com/news/be-smart/paul-colins-jazz-age-poster-masterpieces/> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy

    2021

    Al.G.Field, Illustrated by Remington Jensen,"Greater Minstreals, Fun's Famous Fellows", 1907​ ​

    In-text: (Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Inland 360. 2021. Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy. [online] Available at: <https://www.inland360.com/lewiston-moscow/funny-not-ha-ha-entertainment-talk-explores-complicated-history-of-blackface-minstrelsy/Content?oid=11372304> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy

    2021

    Minstrel shows were a key component in American entertainment during the 19th century, consisting of the lampooning of people of African and African-American descent for entertainment purposes. The shows provided a platform for black citizens​ to promote their work, while simultaneously entertaining those who laughed at stereotyped and exaggerated depictions of these human beings. Among the seas of black-faced Caucasians was a musical undertone that brought classics like “Jimmy Crack Corn” and “Camptown Races” into the American consciousness. Although these songs normally are heard while fire-roasting marshmallows or heat-blistering hot dogs on a camping trip, back then they were written for minstrel exhibitions.​ Seattle-based DJ Amanda Wilde wishes to expose the troubling-but-educational history of minstrel shows and the issues these carefree-sounding songs still inflict on society. She’ll give a presentation titled “The Hidden History of America’s Favorite Music” Tuesday, June 12 at Basalt Cellars in Clarkston as part of a Humanities Washington program sponsored by the Asotin County Library. “Minstrelsy morphed and changed, but it didn’t go away, and some citizens get a lot of their current cultural attitudes from the strange, bizarre subject of minstrelsy,” Wilde said. “It’s a very painful part of our history, but the reason it is important to uncover is that it’s at the roots of much of what we see happening now.” Songs created for the purpose of minstrelsy often depicted the lives of those affected by slavery. The song “Blue Tail Fly” (which most know now as the ditty, “Jimmy Crack Corn”) includes lyrics that the slaves the songs were written about could relate to, such as:​ “When I was young I used to wait On master, handing him his plate I brought his bottle when he got dry And brushed away the blue tail fly”​ ​ However, for audiences of time they were merely catchy tunes that placed harmonious melodies behind mild (for the era) caricatures of black people.​ “(The presentation) is about how music brings us together, but how there’s also a hidden history behind this music that relates to the (race) issues we are facing now,” said Wilde, a radio announcer who hosts the weekend midday show at the Seattle National Public Radio affiliate KUOW-FM 94.9. Serving as a historian on a panel for a Humanities Washington conversation on music, Wilde had a conceptual spark. While speaking about the little-known origins of seemingly harmless songs, she could tell by the audience’s attentiveness that this seldom-spoken-about topic was relevant and important. One issue Wilde has with minstrelsy’s past is that it exploited black culture for entertainment purposes, without being mindful of the people it was based on. However, drawing and quartering the subject of minstrelsy is difficult because the subject matter -- while being of poor taste now -- did humanize black people. The tradition of minstrel shows reached its cultural apex between 1850 and 1870 (slavery ended in 1865). It eventually was supplanted by vaudeville entertainment, but not before offering one of the only opportunities for unheard-of black entertainers to publicly present their work.​ “It’s an odd part of our history that we don’t want to face, but I feel that we have to,” Wilde said. “The bad parts of the minstrel show, the stereotypes and attitudes that prevail to this day, aren’t going away if we don’t see where we got them from.”​ Minstrelsy is a sticky subject, especially in a modern sense when one ties songs that Boy Scouts chant on bus rides to America’s racial issues. One focus of Wilde’s presentation is to present the honest question of “what should we do” in a safe conversational environment. Minstrelsy’s deep transparent stitches, threaded into the soil of the American South, prompt the question: How much minstrelsy still is in effect today? A version of “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” was Virginia’s state song for 150 years, Wilde said, until 1997, when the old minstrel tunes’ racial content stirred controversy and provoked change. “The prejudice that we see happening now was fostered and seeded in this form of entertainment,” she said. “It’s not, nor should it be, something separate from us and our American consciousness. By tugging on the threads of minstrelsy, we could unravel the whole fabric of American culture, but we can never disentangle the distorted racist stereotypes that arose from minstrelsy with art and opportunity that came out of that same tradition.”​

    In-text: (Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Inland 360. 2021. Funny (not &#145;ha-ha&#146;) entertainment: Talk explores complicated history of blackface minstrelsy. [online] Available at: <https://www.inland360.com/lewiston-moscow/funny-not-ha-ha-entertainment-talk-explores-complicated-history-of-blackface-minstrelsy/Content?oid=11372304​> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising.

    2021

    Pear's Soap, 1884

    In-text: (A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising., 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Linkedin.com. 2021. A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising.. [online] Available at: <https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/gratuitous-use-racial-imagery-19th-century-digital-marketer> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising.

    2021

    "The 1884 advertisement by Pears Soap has two distinct panels that are organized vertically. Both panels feature two young children - one White and one Black - in a room that is used for bathing. At the top of the picture are the words “Pears Transparent Soap.” Dividing the two panels are the words “For Improving The Complexion.”​ How does this soap advertisement convey the message of white superiority? Then attractive clearly promotes the idea that you can wash most of the blackness away using Pears Soap. This is seen in the transformation of the black child to being mostly white. What this says is that Pear’s soap will civilize and wash away the savage blackness of Africans and make the savages closer to being civilized and British subjects. As advertisements become more mass produced and people buy into the ads, it confirms the act of being racist. Having these stereotyped ideas of black people put on print gives it more authenticity than just words. Advertising is not a one way street; ads are an amplified version of the values from the reality we live in.​"

    In-text: (A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising., 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Linkedin.com. 2021. A Gratuitous Use of Racial Imagery in Pears Soap Ad in 19th-Century Advertising.. [online] Available at: <https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/gratuitous-use-racial-imagery-19th-century-digital-marketer> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    “All Coons Look a Like to Me”

    2021

    "All coon's look alike to me: A Darkey Misunderstanding", Hogan, Ernest, M. Witmark & Sons, paper (overall material) ​ink (overall material), 1896​

    In-text: (“All Coons Look a Like to Me”, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: National Museum of American History. 2021. “All Coons Look a Like to Me”. [online] Available at: <https://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_663819> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    “All Coons Look a Like to Me”

    2021

    "This sheet music for the song, "All Coons Look Alike to Me: A Darkey Misunderstanding” was composed by Ernest Hogan. Hogan is billed as “the composer of the famous Pas-Ma-La” on the cover. The music was published by M. Witmark and Sons in New York, New York in 1896. Coon songs were popular from around 1890-1910 and often presented insulting and stereotypical racist depictions of African-Americans. In this song, “all coons look alike” to the female singer of this song because she only had eyes for one man. The composer, Ernest Hogan was black and later regretted writing the song. After World War II, even as the civil rights movement emerged, blackface remained a staple of cartoons, community theater, toys, household decorations and corporate branding."

    In-text: (“All Coons Look a Like to Me”, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: National Museum of American History. 2021. “All Coons Look a Like to Me”. [online] Available at: <https://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_663819> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    French Poster Art (Published 1979)

    2021

    "NEW BRUNSWICK IT IS hard to imagine the French poster without Paul Colin. He is to poster art in France what Picasso was to Cubism and Monet to Impressionism. Along with Toulouse‐Lautrec and Cassandre, M. Colin is among the bestknown French posterists, and his lofty reputation is not limited to France. It is indeed international. The 85‐year‐old M. Colin has produced posters of quality and has produced them prolifically. By some counts, he has done as many as 2,000, and he is still turning them out. He got his start in the 1920's, establishing his reputation with posters for Paris's renowned Thetitre des Champs‐Elysees. A selection of the artist's work is on view at the Rutgers University Art Gallery. It is well worth seeing, for it not only highlights some of M. Colin's best examples but also persuasively demonstrates his high level of achievement in poster art. One is simply overwhelmed by the artistry, as well as by the individual flavor and dynamic vivacity, that he has brought to the poster. Indeed, M. Colin is an artist if the images he makes of certain places, things and times are the images we associate with those places, things and times. His posters of the Revue Negre, which featured American black artists in the 1920's, are classics, as are his posters of French singers and actors and his depictions of certain movies, record covers and products, such as Dubonnet. Also an irrepressible patriot, M. Colin made famous posters celebrating the glory of France and others that condemned the atrocities of totalitarian and dictatorial governments. Many memorable posters we have seen of the French railroad and shipping lines also are by this artist. When M. Colin was working in the 1920's, his work had a 1920's feel, not only for the topicality of the events, but also for its style. The same is true for other periods. Some of his early pieces smack of Art Deco, a prominently popular decorative expression, and others went so far as to incorporate Cubist elements. In some posters, the images are flattened, distorted and related in a way that Picasso and Braque composed their works.​ ​ However, M. Colin realized that Cubism, among other means, invested his work with a strong structure and compelling space, as well as with a sense of movement. Posters need movement to attract attention, and M. Colin is fully aware of everything that a poster needs to lure the eye. This posterist has used other devices so that his works would receive instantaneous notice. For example, he makes his figures large and bold, sometimes endowing them with disproportionate sizes and with distorted faces and bodies. If the situation requires it, he keys up his colors to hot tonalities, keeping them simple and rarely using more than three or four hues. Usually, M. Colin has stayed away from complex compositions. When he did not, he wasn't so successful. Posters have to be read and comprehended quickly, and M. Colin understands that. Many great artists have tried their hand at posters and failed, for they attempted the same things they attempted in their paintings. There is no room for reflection in looking at posters, for the public does not look at posters the same way it looks at paintings. Poster art is more closely allied to portrait painting than to any other kind of art, for in both cases the artist and a patron are involved. It requires the artist to make a compromise: He must follow the recommendations of his sponsor, he must catch the flavor of his representation and he must present his message clearly and simply. He has to use both images and words. Once he has considered these factors, he can reckon with his own stylistics and other indulgences. In most of his pieces, M. Colin admirably combines the necessities of commerce with his personal artistic instincts. There is also a great deal of playfulness and wit in this artist's posters. For example, he takes a subject like constipation and gives it an amusing casual flair, and his image for the black revues is full of fun and gaiety. Although some may feel that M. Colin's posters of blacks are racist because of their Stepin Fetchit flavor, most blacks of the time, including Josephine Baker and Katherine Dunham, felt that his works caught the spirit of their shows. Colin's best posters are like a punch in the face. They certainly draw attention, they hit hard, they leave a mark and they are not easily forgotten. Paul Colin and his Lover Josephine Baker Having become the lover of Josephine Baker and a life-long friend, Paul designed many other posters for her performances and for her recordings, and helped promote her career. She, in return, was his muse and inspired many great artworks which have remained popular to this day."

    In-text: (French Poster Art (Published 1979), 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Nytimes.com. 2021. French Poster Art (Published 1979). [online] Available at: <https://www.nytimes.com/1979/11/18/archives/new-jersey-weekly-french-poster-art-at-rutgers-gallery.html> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Why blackface?

    2021

    1899 lithograph of white minstrel performer Carroll Johnson depicted in blackface​ ​

    In-text: (Why blackface?, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: The Conversation. 2021. Why blackface?. [online] Available at: <https://theconversation.com/why-blackface-111404> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    Why blackface?

    2021

    Blackface is part of American culture’s DNA. But America has forgotten that. For almost two weeks, conflict has raged over the use of blackface by two current Virginia politicians when they were younger. The revelations havethreatened the men’s jobs and their standing in the community. The use of blackface is now politically and culturally radioactive. Yet there was a time when it wasn’t.​

    In-text: (Why blackface?, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: The Conversation. 2021. Why blackface?. [online] Available at: <https://theconversation.com/why-blackface-111404> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG

    2021

    Elliotts White Veneer, Elliott Paint and Varnish Co. Founded 1897, 1935​

    In-text: (YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Yasminesenglishblog.tumblr.com. 2021. YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG. [online] Available at: <https://yasminesenglishblog.tumblr.com/> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

  • Website

    YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG

    2021

    "Wayyyy back, actually, not so long ago when you think about it, bias in advertisement concerning groups based on ethnicity, religion, sex, sexuality was fundamental norm in typically-white culture. If you were not of the wonderful, pious, white, straight, Christian males then woe betide you! You would, probably several times over the past century, have been subject to the focus of such respectful and principled advertisement. This image, all the way from the Jim Crow era, depicts two black boys, one painting over another in white paint to promote Elliott’s White Veneer. Said image shows their total willingness to give up their coloured skin in favour of white skin - a clear reflection of the institutionalized racism of that time and absolute bias in favour of the most stupid ideology that is white supremacy. So many aspects of this “advert” are patronizing and condescending, while conglomerating to form a synergy of unjust racial discrimination, a direct attack on all that we should value. That is to say, a direct attack on basic human principles, wondrous diversity and unconditional acceptance of the way we always were, from the moment we gained consciousness. Perhaps the worst element is the way they are laughing. They are happy to have rid themselves of their cursed dark skin, elated at the fact that now they too can be white, no longer those unwanted blisters in a uniform society. This is an example of degradation at rock-bottom, the best of the worst.​ Thank God this bull isn’t legal anymore."

    In-text: (YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Yasminesenglishblog.tumblr.com. 2021. YASMINE'S ENGLISH BLOG. [online] Available at: <https://yasminesenglishblog.tumblr.com/> [Accessed 23 May 2021].

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