These are the sources and citations used to research 20th Centuary racist advertisments. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    L'histoire de Banania - De 1914 à nos jours ...

    2021

    "During the post-war period, many illustrators helped contribute to the evolution of the Banania character. G. de Andreis, G Elizabeth, F. Poulbot, B. Rabier, G. Meunier, Sepo, H. Morvan in 1957, Chaval in 1966, Siné in 1970.​ Some great artists have served this brand! With the outbreak of the 1st World War, Banania became the comfort drink of wartime France. Pierre-François Lardet decided to send fourteen wagons full of his famous chocolate powder to the front, to give “strength and vitality” to the soldiers, including the Senegalese riflemen, who fought so bravely. He then asked his friend and former colleague Andreis to draw him one of those Senegalese riflemen to use as the symbol of the BANANIA brand.​"

    In-text: (L'histoire de Banania - De 1914 à nos jours ..., 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Banania. 2021. L'histoire de Banania - De 1914 à nos jours .... [online] Available at: <https://www.banania.fr/banania-the-history-of-a-french-heritage-brand/?lang=en> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    LIFE

    2021

    "The world’s smartest shirts", Van Heusen, LIFE magazine, 1952​

    In-text: (LIFE, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Google Books. 2021. LIFE. [online] Available at: <https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d1QEAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA9&pg=PA9&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Anon

    2021

    Goofy Grape, "Chinese Cherry", Pillsbury's Funny-Face Drink, 1964​

    In-text: (2021)

    Your Bibliography: I.etsystatic.com. 2021. [online] Available at: <https://i.etsystatic.com/5912056/r/il/736cd9/451772425/il_fullxfull.451772425_epcy.jpg> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Anon

    2021

    Goofy Grape, "Injun Orange", Pillsbury's Funny-Face Drink, 1964​

    In-text: (2021)

    Your Bibliography: I.etsystatic.com. 2021. [online] Available at: <https://i.etsystatic.com/5912056/r/il/12217c/451764396/il_794xN.451764396_ical.jpg> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Sen, M.

    Maybe These Pillsbury Drink Mix Mascots Are Best Left in 1965

    2021

    "Hal Silverman was serving as the Creative Director of the now-defunct Campbell Mithun advertising agency when, in 1964, a particularly exciting assignment came in from Pillsbury. They wanted to create a drink mix to rival that of Kool-Aid, which Kraft had produced to rapturous success since 1927. What resulted was the genesis of Funny Face in early 1965, pre-sweetened drink powders that came in small pouches. Silverman conceived of specific characters for each of the drink's flavors, meant, initially, to serve as something of a tribute to his four-year-old daughter whom he called "Freckle Face." Goofy Grape was the leader of the gang, and he'd be accompanied by Freckle Face Strawberry, Loud Mouth Lime, Rootin’ Tootin’ Raspberry, along with Chinese Cherry and Injun Orange. Injun Orange was a rotund orange with two smears of war paint on each cheek and topped with a feather headdress. Chinese Cherry was a fleshy drupe with slanted eyes, a Hop Sing pigtail, and buck teeth, his arrival in the commercial accompanied by the strum of a gong. Time—rightly—hasn't been kind to these flavors. Today, they’ve accrued quite a deserved reputation for being outwardly racist caricatures. (A few pockets of the internet contend that Pillsbury kowtowed to “PC culture,” before the words 'PC culture' meant anything at all in our cultural vernacular.) Yet, in most corners, they’re cited as relics of America's ugly advertising past, wherein someone’s personhood was greater America’s punchline.​ ​ It didn't take very long for Pillsbury to change the characters. Mere months after releasing the Funny Face flavors, Pillsbury was inundated with a flurry of complaints. It began with spores of fury from Chinese grocers in Sacramento, California, who objected to the drink mixes being sold in their stores. In July of 1965, Pillsbury recognized error and amended accordingly, transforming the two into Choo Choo Cherry, an pleasant train engineer, and the daft, gleeful Jolly Olly Orange. “We admit guilt all over the lot,” the unnamed Pillsbury spokesman told The New York Times in February of 1966. “It was in poor taste. We quickly saw our fault.” Yet even after this shift, a number of the old packages were still in rotation. Early in 1966, the Association on American Indian Affairs, a nonprofit advocacy group, penned a strongly worded missive to Pillsbury on behalf of both Native Americans and Chinese-Americans, contending that Funny Face’s caricatures “hold up to ridicule and derision some 55,000 American Indian citizens and 700,000 American citizens of Oriental descent [sic] face.”​ ​ The group hadn't yet realized Pillsbury had already course-corrected. This wasn't the first time AAIA had successfully lobbied to get rid of a tasteless food mascot; earlier that decade, it'd persuaded Clavert Distillers Company to reverse the mascot-making of an Indian brave to sell whiskey. Their view of Pillsbury's intent was charitable, professing they doubted Pillsbury was malicious in intent. Yet wanted to reassert the wider repercussions of such casually incendiary representation. “American Indians are the most poverty-stricken group in the United States," they wrote. "Portrayals such as those used on your product impede their efforts to make a better life for themselves and give them little reason to believe that they will be treated by their non-Indian fellow citizens with respect.” The history of Funny Face itself after the ban of these two characters is quite tumultuous, too: The artificial sweetener that formed the backbone of the drink—cyclamate—had been banned by the FDA in 1968, resulting in the removal of Funny Face from store shelves until Pillsbury could ably reformulate. The next year, Pillsbury had retooled accordingly, and Funny Face returned with sugar and a battalion of new flavors. These weren't enough to keep the product afloat, particularly against Kool Aid's dominance; it'd petered out by the mid-1980s after attempting a valiant last gasp in the form of chocolate flavored moo-juice.​ It’s been 50 some years since Silverman created these characters. I reached out to Silverman, the man who conceived of these two characters now cast in amber for their offensiveness; I wanted to know how he felt about what happened 50 years ago, what he remembered of these protests, and how he looks back on the creation of these characters. As of writing, Silverman hasn’t responded, and I’ll update if he does so. The closest thing he’s offered thus far to an apology—or explanation—is in the comments section of an old article on Retroland from three years ago. “At the time, I was naive enough not to realize that the names Chinese Cherry and Injun Orange could be hurtful to Chinese and Native Americans,” he wrote. “My sincere apologies, at this late date, to anyone I offended.”​

    In-text: (Sen, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Sen, M., 2021. Maybe These Pillsbury Drink Mix Mascots Are Best Left in 1965. [online] Food52. Available at: <https://food52.com/blog/18562-maybe-these-pillsbury-drink-mix-mascots-are-best-left-in-1965> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Goofy Grape – templeofthetongue

    2021

    "Back in the carefree, racist, Hazmat-filled days of 1964, Pillsbury decided to take on a soft-drink behemoth that has since acquired a second, political, meaning (Kool-Aid®) with “Funny Face.”a series of imitation drink mixes of their own. There were initially six iterations of Funny Face, two of which (Injun Orange and Chinese Cherry) were promptly withdrawn because they were have adjudged to have exceeded even the racist norms of their time, and it was a time when many people actually got embarrassed about creating racist memes. Further scorn was heaped on the product when it was discovered to have been sweetened with cyclamates, which were declared a carcinogen and banned in America in 1970. But Goofy Grape was my fave Funny Face drink, cancer be damned.​"

    In-text: (Goofy Grape – templeofthetongue, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: templeofthetongue. 2021. Goofy Grape – templeofthetongue. [online] Available at: <https://templeofthetongue.com/tag/goofy-grape/> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years

    2021

    "Have you ever heard about Banania? The French brand was born in 1912 and is still selling chocolate drinks today, mostly in France. The name Banania comes from the ingredients used to make the unique chocolate powder: cocoa, honey, cereals, but also banana flour (produced in Africa in those days). Banania is well known in France for two reasons: its unique taste, but also for the scandals due to its advertisements. During a visit near Lake Managua, Nicaragua in 1909, the journalist Pierre Lardet discovered the recipe for a cocoa-based drink. When he returned to Paris, he started its commercial fabrication and, in 1912, began marketing Banania with the picture of an Antillaise. Her image was replaced in 1915 with the drawing of a widely smiling Senegalese man.​" ​ "At the outset of World War I, the popularity of the colonial troops at the time led to the replacement of the West Indian by the now more familiar jolly Senegalese infantry man enjoying Banania. Pierre Lardet took it upon himself to distribute the product to the Army, using the line pour nos soldats la nourriture abondante qui se conserve sous le moindre volume possible (“for our soldiers: the abundant food which keeps, using the least possible space”). The brand’s yellow background underlines the banana ingredient, and the Senagalese infantryman’s red and blue uniform make up the other two main colors. The slogan Y’a bon (“It’s good”) derives from the pidgin French supposedly used by these soldiers (it is, in fact, an invention). Slowly but surely, the slogan and the character became inseparable as the expression was coined: l’ami y’a bon (“the y’a bon buddy”). “The brand conveys a pejorative, degrading and racist image towards people of black color whom it portrays as ill-educated, inarticulate and barely able to string together three words of French,” according to the writ from the Collective of Caribbeans, Guyanese and Réunionnais. “Use of the slogan since early in the last century has been so influential that some people now associate Banania with skin color. This deplorable caricature has led to hurtful insults against black children in schools and in the street,” it said. The form of the character has since evolved to more of a cartoon character. However, the original advertising has become a cultural icon in France. Posters and reproduction tin-plate signs of the pre-war advertising continue to be sold. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Banania sponsored the Yellow Jersey of the Tour de France. In France the Banania brand is now owned by the newly founded French company Nutrial, which acquired it from Unilever in 2003. Vintage Banania advertisements, boxes and crockery are today highly prized by collectors​"

    In-text: (Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Vintag.es. 2021. Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years. [online] Available at: <https://www.vintag.es/2019/04/banania-ads.html> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

  • Website

    Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years

    2021

    Banania, G. de andreis banania, Sepo, H. Morvan, Banania, 1915 - 1957​ ​

    In-text: (Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Vintag.es. 2021. Controversial Advertisements by Banania, the Brand Emphasized the Racist Stereotype of Dumb Black People for Years. [online] Available at: <https://www.vintag.es/2019/04/banania-ads.html> [Accessed 30 May 2021].

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