These are the sources and citations used to research Black Slave trade History and Illustration advertisements​. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    Slavery in America

    2021

    "Hundreds of thousands of Africans, both free and enslaved, aided the establishment and survival of colonies in the Americas and the New World. However, many consider a significant starting point to slavery in America to be 1619, when the privateer The White Lion brought 20 African slaves ashore in the British colony of Jamestown, Virginia. The crew had seized the Africans from the Portugese slave ship Sao Jao Bautista. Throughout the 17th century, European settlers in North America turned to enslaved Africans as a cheaper, more plentiful labor source than indentured servants, who were mostly poor Europeans. Though it is impossible to give accurate figures, some historians have estimated that 6 to 7 million enslaved people were imported to the New World during the 18th century alone, depriving the African continent of some of its healthiest and ablest men and women."​

    In-text: (Slavery in America, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: HISTORY. 2021. Slavery in America. [online] Available at: <https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/slavery> [Accessed 17 May 2021].

  • Website

    America’s First Newspapers Were Financed by the Slave Trade

    2021

    "One of the earliest newspaper advertisements in what would become the United States read, simply, “A Negro Woman about 16 Years Old, to be Sold by John Campbell Post-master, to be seen at his house next door to the Anchor Tavern.” In addition to being Boston’s postmaster, John Campbell was the publisher of the Boston News-Letter, the continent’s earliest long-running newspaper. As the originator of the American newspaper, Campbell created a template for the editors who followed him. One of the ways he did that was by selling enslaved people."​ ​ "In recent years, many institutions have begun to grapple with slavery’s role in their formation. Elite colleges like Harvard, Brown, and Georgetown have addressed the ways that slavery shaped their beginnings. Corporations such as Aetna and New York Life have acknowledged selling life insurance policies for enslaved human beings. One institution that has largely escaped this scrutiny has been journalism. Yet the trafficking of enslaved people provided an essential foundation for the American news media. It was almost midnight on a December evening when I was looking through an early American newspaper database and stumbled across an advertisement much like the one Campbell published. By the time I went to sleep many hours later, I found hundreds of similar examples: in Benjamin Franklin’s Pennsylvania Gazette, “A likely young Negro Man, fit for Plantation Work, to be sold very reasonable. Enquire of the Printer hereof, and know further”; in the Hartford Connecticut Courant, “A Likely, active healthy Negro Boy, about 15 years of age, to be Sold. Enquire of the Printers”; and in the New-Hampshire Gazette, “A Very Likely, Healthy Negro Lad, About Seventeen Years of Age, To Be Sold. Enquire of the Printers.” Eventually I found thousands of these advertisements."​ ​

    In-text: (America’s First Newspapers Were Financed by the Slave Trade, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: The Daily Beast. 2021. America’s First Newspapers Were Financed by the Slave Trade. [online] Available at: <https://www.thedailybeast.com/americas-first-newspapers-were-financed-by-the-slave-trade> [Accessed 17 May 2021].

  • Website

    How Slavery Gave Capitalism Its Start

    2021

    Photo Illustration by The Daily Beast/Getty​

    In-text: (How Slavery Gave Capitalism Its Start, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: The Daily Beast. 2021. How Slavery Gave Capitalism Its Start. [online] Available at: <https://www.thedailybeast.com/how-slavery-gave-capitalism-its-start> [Accessed 17 May 2021].

  • Website

    Where the Landing of the First Africans in English North America Really Fits in the History of Slavery

    2021

    It was 400 years ago, “about the latter end of August,” that an English privateer ship reached Point Comfort on the Virginia peninsula. There, Governor George Yeardley and his head of trade, Cape Merchant Abraham Piersey, bought the “20. and odd Negroes” aboard in exchange for “victuals” — meaning, they traded food for slaves.​ Such a trade, as described five months after the fact in a letter to the Virginia Company of London, had never before occurred in English North America, making this an ignominious milestone — and one that 400 years later is still surrounded by misconceptions and debate.​ At the very least, 1619 represented a landmark in the long history of slavery in European colonies, and the beginning stages of what would become the institution of slavery in America. The New York Times this past weekend announced a special project devoted to its indelible mark on American society, and Hampton, Va., is commemorating the anniversary through Wednesday. Previously, on July 30, when President Trump spoke in Williamsburg, Va., to mark the 400th anniversary of Virginia’s General Assembly, he noted — in a speech boycotted by the Virginia Legislative Black Caucus, over Trump’s comments about black politicians — that it wasn’t long after that governing body first met that the colony saw “the beginning of a barbaric trade in human lives.”​ ​ The people who came in August 1619 have been described as “the first Africans to set foot on the North American continent,” but that is incorrect.​ For example, as historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. has pointed out, Juan Garrido became the first documented black person to arrive in what would become the U.S. when he accompanied Juan Ponce de León in search of the Fountain of Youth in 1513, and they ended up in present-day Florida, around St. Augustine.​ Nor is it the case that those who arrived in 1619 were the first enslaved people in what would become the United States. In 1565, for example, the Spanish brought enslaved Africans to present-day St. Augustine, Fla., the first European settlement in what’s now the continental U.S. In 1526, a Spanish expedition to present-day South Carolina was thwarted when the enslaved Africans aboard resisted.​ In addition, Indigenous people — notably those of the 30-odd tribal communities led by Pocahontas’s father Powhatan — lived in the area that became Virginia long before Europeans or Africans got there. The English settlers enslaved indigenous people around the time of 1619, and some colonists later owned both American Indian and African slaves, says Ashley Atkins Spivey, an anthropologist and member of Pamunkey, the Powhatan chief’s tribe.​ After the marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe, there was peace between the English and the Powhatan people, but relations started to deteriorate after her 1617 death. Those tensions would come to a head in a 1622 uprising, and later, the English sold their American Indian captives as slaves to the British colonies in the West Indies to pay for their wars with Indigenous people on the East Coast, according to Spivey. “People forget that there was a powerful Indigenous nation negotiating its own situation with the English in the year of 1619, and those descendants still continue to live today,” she says.​ The 400th anniversary being marked this month is really the 400th anniversary of the Anglo-centric history of Africans in the U.S., says Greg Carr, the Chair of the Department of Afro-American Studies at Howard University. Dating the history of Africans in North America to 400 years ago “reinforces this narrative of English superiority.” But, he argues, remembering the Spanish and indigenous sides of the history is more important now than ever, as “the people [officials] are closing the border to are [descended from] people who were here when you came.”​ “People don’t tend to want to think about early U.S. history as being anything but English and English-speaking,” echoes Michael Guasco, historian at Davidson College and author of Slaves and Englishmen: Human Bondage in the Early Modern Atlantic World. “There is a Hispanic heritage that predates the U.S, and there’s a tendency for people to willingly forget or omit the early history of Florida, Texas and California, particularly as the politics of today want to push back against Spanish language and immigration from Latin America.”​ That said, something did change in 1619. Because of the central role of the English colonies in American history, the introduction of the transatlantic slave trade to Virginia is likewise central to this ugly and inescapable part of that story. In addition, the type of race-based chattel slavery system that solidified in the centuries that followed was its own unique American tragedy.

    In-text: (Where the Landing of the First Africans in English North America Really Fits in the History of Slavery, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Time. 2021. Where the Landing of the First Africans in English North America Really Fits in the History of Slavery. [online] Available at: <https://time.com/5653369/august-1619-jamestown-history/> [Accessed 17 May 2021].

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