These are the sources and citations used to research Racist illustration books and Illustrators​. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    Tintin in the Congo not racist, court rules

    2021

    A Belgian court has rejected an application to ban a controversial Tintin book over claims it breaches racism laws. It said it did not believe the 1946 edition of Tintin in the Congo was intended to incite racial hatred. Congolese campaigner Bienvenu Mbutu Mondondo launched legal proceedings in 2007 to get the book banned, saying its portrayal of Africans was racist. Mr Mbutu's lawyer said he planned to appeal against the decision. Written in the late 1920s, Tintin in the Congo was the second book Herge - real name Georges Remi - produced featuring his young reporter hero. It was first serialised from 1930 to 31 and was then reissued in 1946. The book tells of Tintin's escapades in the former Belgian colony and includes encounters with diamond smugglers, big game hunters and wild animals. Tintin in the Congo has always attracted criticism, and Herge said later that he was not happy with the work. The Belgian court said it was created at a time when colonial ideas were prevalent. "It is clear that neither the story, nor the fact that it has been put on sale, has a goal to... create an intimidating, hostile, degrading or humiliating environment," the court said in its judgment. Mr Mbutu's lawyer told Reuters his client would "take this case as far as he can". UK editions of the book, published in English in 1991, are generally found beside more adult literature and inform readers the content could cause offence.

    In-text: (Tintin in the Congo not racist, court rules, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: BBC News. 2021. Tintin in the Congo not racist, court rules. [online] Available at: <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-17014127> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Limited, A.

    Stock Photo - 'The "Pop-Up" Little Black Sambo' based on 'The Story of Little Black Sambo' by Helen Bannerman. See description for more information

    2021

    The "Pop-Up" Little Black Sambo' based on 'The Story of Little Black Sambo' by Helen Bannerman, Blue Ribbon Company, 1934​

    In-text: (Limited, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Limited, A., 2021. Stock Photo - 'The "Pop-Up" Little Black Sambo' based on 'The Story of Little Black Sambo' by Helen Bannerman. See description for more information. [online] Alamy. Available at: <https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-the-pop-up-little-black-sambo-based-on-the-story-of-little-black-sambo-95341345.html> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    'The Story of Little Black Sambo'

    2021

    "'The Story of Little Black Sambo' by Helen Bannerman is part of the museum's collection which explores the representation of Black people through racial stereotypes. The International Slavery Museum endeavours to collect objects that represent forms of racism and discrimination such as these, as well as items relating to transatlantic slavery, Black history and contemporary forms of slavery.​ The American edition of the book is currently on display. Two other books by Helen Bannerman - the British edition of 'The Story of Little Black Sambo' and 'The Story of Sambo and the Twins' have also been donated to the International Slavery Museum's collections, but are not currently on display.​ Several items like this have all been donated to the museum by people who had owned them for a long time, possibly from childhood. The growing realisation that once familiar and 'acceptable' objects are based on negative racial stereotypes has left owners unsure of what to do with them."

    In-text: ('The Story of Little Black Sambo', 2021)

    Your Bibliography: National Museums Liverpool. 2021. 'The Story of Little Black Sambo'. [online] Available at: <https://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/story-of-little-black-sambo> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo

    2021

    The Story of Little Black Sambo, 1899

    In-text: (The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA). 2021. The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo. [online] Available at: <https://www.saada.org/tides/article/little-black-sambo> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo

    2021

    "The Story of Little Black Sambo. Published first in England in 1899 and then in the United States the following year, it tells the story of a little boy who is forced to surrender his clothing and his umbrella to four tigers so as to avoid being eaten by them. However, it is Little Black Sambo who has the last laugh when the tigers begin fighting among themselves and ultimately chasing each other around a tree until they are transformed into a pool of ghee. Not only does he recover his possessions, his mother, Black Mumbo, uses the ghee to make pancakes for the entire family. In fact, in the French-language edition of Bannerman’s book, Sambo Le Petit Négre (1948), the little boy is depicted eating tiger-striped pancakes! "​ ​ "As a gift for her two little girls, [Helen Bannerman] wrote and illustrated The Story of Little Black Sambo (1899), a story that clearly takes place in India (with its tigers and ‘ghi,’ or melted butter), even though the names she gave her characters belie that setting. For this new edition of Bannerman’s much beloved tale, the little boy, his mother, and his father have all been given authentic Indian names: Babaji, Mamaji, and Papaji."

    In-text: (The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA). 2021. The complicated racial politics of Little Black Sambo. [online] Available at: <https://www.saada.org/tides/article/little-black-sambo> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Anon

    2021

    "Helen Bannerman's success as an author is like a fairy tale, complete with the evil plot twist. Born in 1862 in Edinburgh, Scotland to a minister father, she and her family moved to a small island in the north Atlantic called Madeira. She was home schooled by her father until the family returned to Edinburgh in 1874, when she began regular schooling."​ ​ In 1900 a US publisher named Frederick A. Stokes bought the rights to the book, changed the cover, reset the type, and published a US version. 'Little Black Sambo' was an immediate bestseller. Loose publishing laws of the times led to several pirated versions being printed. These books were not like the original and had several startling changes. The main character, Sambo, was often drawn as a boy from Africa or South America; he was also made to look dishonorable and unintelligent. Many people began looking at 'Little Black Sambo' as a racist depiction; at several points in its history it has been banned or boycotted. The name 'Sambo' even began to be linked as a racist slur. ​ This was not the story Bannerman wrote or ever meant to portray. In 1923, Stokes added the words 'The Only Authorized American Edition' to all original printings of the book. It remained on the 'Recommended Book List for Children' into the 1960s and is still considered a favorite of children around the world. "

    In-text: (2021)

    Your Bibliography: Study.com. 2021. [online] Available at: <https://study.com/academy/lesson/helen-bannerman-biography-books.html> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Tintin racism row puts spotlight on children's literature

    2021

    "I think there are several layers that are problematic, yes. First of all, there are the early books that are blatantly and openly racist, like "Tintin in the Congo." As a second layer, there are things that would be considered racist today but that were quite normal in Hergé's time. This can be apparent to critical-minded adults, but not to the pre-teens who this particular library is made for. Thirdly, there's the very fundamental problem that even the anti-racism in the books is typical of Hergé's time and its racial hierarchies. The anti-racist effort in the adventures of Tintin is portrayed as a sort of civilatory white man's burden — a knightly, gentlemanly missionary activity. At the time before decolonisation this may have appeared normal, even radical to an extent, but today it's at best infantile and at worst derogatory. It exemplifies the essential problem with white anti-racism in general, certainly the problem with anti-racism in Sweden. That said, and to complicate matters, I'm also a fan of Tintin." ​ ​ "There's the standard argument, almost playing the devil's advocate, that it's necessary to keep these colonial depictions "for an educational purpose". But necessary for whom? Do we need, in our current time, to have racist imagery stockpiled on us again and again? What kind of message does that send to children? What kind of message does it send to those depicted? And if these "educational examples" are so important, why does it appear as if the same white people who are advocating for them have learnt nothing from them? I've seen, for instance, "Prisoners of the Sun" being referred to as a shining example of Tintin's anti-racism. And yet it portrays Andean Quechua people as incredibly superstitious and practicing human sacrifice, with only the fully westernised Quechua boy Zorrino shown in a positive light. The native people not siding with the whites are made out as evil, completely ignoring the horrors of colonial crimes. And of course, Tintin is the white man to the rescue… And these people are supposed to have learnt something from being critical to racist literature? Honestly, it's as if Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom were to be considered a fair representative of Hindu culture. It's also problematic that we need to continually review and respond to the books that are obviously racist. I'm more interested in the works that are in between, the ones that can be kept, and the question of how we can guarantee that there will be a critical discussion around them. I really don't think it's so strange to take something like Tintin away from children. We are perfectly ready to make this sort of appraisal when it comes to gender roles, or sexuality, or the negative stereotyping of poor people in very old books, but I think the problem here is that it's seen as a group concern, something internal to Afro-Swedish people. The wider implications around children's rights not to have their group depicted as a racist stereotype are missed. And honestly, I don't know which white parents would want their children exposed to racist imagery anyway!"​ ​ ​

    In-text: (Tintin racism row puts spotlight on children's literature, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: the Guardian. 2021. Tintin racism row puts spotlight on children's literature. [online] Available at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/15/tintin-racism-sweden-row> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Hergé

    2021

    On September 26, 1945 the first issue of Tintin Magazine is published. It is a new weekly publication created for young people by Raymond Leblanc, a fighter in the French Resistance.

    In-text: (Hergé, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Tintin.com. 2021. Hergé. [online] Available at: <https://www.tintin.com/en/herge> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com

    2021

    Tintin in the Congo, 1931

    In-text: (Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Tintin.com. 2021. Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com. [online] Available at: <https://www.tintin.com/en/albums/tintin-in-the-congo#> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com

    2021

    His popularity well established, this is to Africa that Tintin now sets off. The Adventures of Tintin, reporter at Le Petit Vingtième, in the Congo (1931) is a naïve depiction of the colonial times and paternalistic views as they existed in Belgium in the early 1930's. For this new story, Hergé will improvise. Tintin becomes a sorcerer in the Babaoru'm Kingdom. He will outsmart the traps of the gangsters who want to take control of the diamond production of Congo.​ ​

    In-text: (Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Tintin.com. 2021. Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com. [online] Available at: <https://www.tintin.com/en/albums/tintin-in-the-congo#> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com

    2021

    "Tin Tin in the Congo", 1970 (cover edition)

    In-text: (Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Tintin.com. 2021. Tintin in the Congo — Tintin.com. [online] Available at: <https://www.tintin.com/en/albums/tintin-in-the-congo> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

  • Website

    I never noticed how racist so many children’s books are until I started reading to my kids

    2021

    ​ "A quick skim revealed illustrations with the minstrel-show aesthetic — bright, white, round eyes, bulging red lips — of "darky" iconography."

    In-text: (I never noticed how racist so many children’s books are until I started reading to my kids, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Vox. 2021. I never noticed how racist so many children’s books are until I started reading to my kids. [online] Available at: <https://www.vox.com/2015/7/10/8901109/childrens-books-racist-sexist> [Accessed 24 May 2021].

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