These are the sources and citations used to research WWII Racist Propaganda Posters. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    akg-images -

    2021

    “You think war end soon?… Go ahead, TAKE DAY OFF!", akg-images, 1944​

    In-text: (akg-images -, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Akg-images.co.uk. 2021. akg-images -. [online] Available at: <https://www.akg-images.co.uk/archive/-2UMDHUSPK7UP.html> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

  • Website

    This Is The Enemy

    2021

    Racist depictions of Japanese and other Asian immigrants were common well before World War II. Since immigration from Japan began increasing in the 1880s, Japanese were described as an invading horde or “yellow peril,” a threat to white society. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government mass-produced propaganda posters showing racist stereotypes of a subhuman Japanese enemy — fanged, slit-eyed, devious creatures. The Japanese enemy was often pictured in the form of ugly and frightening animals, such as rats, bats, and other vermin. The decision to incarcerate all individuals of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast in 1942 was influenced by widespread assumptions that people of Japanese descent were perpetually foreign and untrustworthy by virtue of their race. ​

    In-text: (This Is The Enemy, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Chumpfish3.blogspot.com. 2021. This Is The Enemy. [online] Available at: <http://chumpfish3.blogspot.com/2010/03/this-is-enemy.html> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

  • Website

    "Jap Trap," World War II Propaganda Poster

    2021

    "Jap Trap," World War II propaganda poster, United States Information Service, 1941–45. From Densho Digital Archive​

    In-text: ("Jap Trap," World War II Propaganda Poster, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Historymatters.gmu.edu. 2021. "Jap Trap," World War II Propaganda Poster. [online] Available at: <http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/8332/> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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    Alaska - death-trap for the Jap

    2021

    "Alaska - death-trap for the Jap", Grigware, Edward T. (Edward Thomas), Federal Art Project, 1941-1943​

    In-text: (Alaska - death-trap for the Jap, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Loc.gov. 2021. Alaska - death-trap for the Jap. [online] Available at: <https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98510121/> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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    Stop and get your free fag bag Careless matches aid the Axis.

    2021

    "Stop and get your free fag bag Careless matches aid the Axis", Hirshman, Louis, Federal Art Project, 1941-1943 ​

    In-text: (Stop and get your free fag bag Careless matches aid the Axis., 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Loc.gov. 2021. Stop and get your free fag bag Careless matches aid the Axis.. [online] Available at: <https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98518714/> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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    profile, V.

    This Is The Enemy

    2021

    "This is the Enemy".” Maximum Advantage in Pictures: Propaganda as Art and History, 1942​

    In-text: (profile, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: profile, V., 2021. This Is The Enemy. [online] Chumpfish3.blogspot.com. Available at: <http://chumpfish3.blogspot.com/2010/03/this-is-enemy.html> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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    A Journal of Undergraduate Writing - WWII Propaganda: The Influence of Racism

    2021 - Hannah Miles

    Images created in times of war reveal the tensions and fears ignited by the conflicts between nations. Close analysis shows that the attached World War II propaganda poster is one such image (Figure 1). This 1942 poster, titled This is the Enemy, circulated in the United States following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Its purpose was to embody the entire Japanese nation as a ruthless and animalistic enemy that needed to be defeated. This image represents a clash between two nations at war and illustrates the biased perceptions that developed as a result. By dehumanizing the Japanese and instilling fear in the minds of Americans, WWII propaganda posters prompted cultural and racial hatred that led to massive historical consequences for the Japanese. Forms of propaganda have permeated society for centuries and have evolved to become a common tool of warfare. In her journal article, Lynette Finch defined propaganda as “the management of opinions and attitudes by the direct manipulation of social suggestion.” (Lynette Finch, “Psychological Propaganda: The War of Ideas on Ideas During the First Half of the Twentieth Century,” Armed Forces & Society 26, no. 3 (2000): 368.)​ In other words, propaganda is used to influence people psychologically in order to alter social perceptions. In the case of This is the Enemy, the purpose was to change American perceptions of the Japanese (Figure 1). One strategy used to accomplish this was fear tactic. When viewing the image, the thick lines and dark colors combine to create an ominous tone. The stark white of the teeth and eyes on both faces highlights their extremely emotional expressions: one of anger and menace on the Japanese soldier, and one of utter fear and terror on the woman. The large, looming position of the soldier adds to his intimidation, while the inferior position of the woman emphasizes her helplessness. The knife is pointed menacingly at the woman, indicating murderous intent. These features combine to instill fear and anger in the minds of Americans. The purpose of this was to rally the nation behind the war to defeat the Japanese “enemy.” Aside from fear tactics, the visual elements in the poster also support racial stereotypes against the Japanese. The peach skin color of the woman is a typical depiction of a Caucasian American, while yellow is the color stereotypically assigned to people of Asian descent. Other differentiations of the soldier include slanted eyes and a face that resembles an animal. The slanted eyes illustrate another Asian stereotype, and the monkey-like face depicts the Japanese as animalistic monsters. The woman, on the other hand, has an ideal American appearance. She has attractive facial features and shows no hints of animalism. The American audience, young and old alike, could relate to her familiar facial features and human-like appearance. On the other hand, the subhuman depiction of the Japanese detached any human relation between the two races. These racial distinctions were purposefully included in order to further alienate the Japanese as the “other” people.​ ​ Analysis of a supplemental WWII poster further proves the influence of propaganda in spreading racial stereotypes. Tokio Kid Say depicts the “Tokio Kid,” a Japanese character that appeared in a sequence of WWII propaganda posters (Figure 2). According to Time Magazine, the “Tokio Kid” was created by artist Jack Campbell and sponsored by Douglas Aircraft Company as part of the company’s campaign to reduce waste. (“Art: The Tokio Kid,” Time Magazine, June 15, 1942.) In this particular poster, he is brandishing a bloody knife, which supports the aforementioned portrayal of the Japanese as dangerous murderers. The pointed ears and sharp fangs also add to the menace of the character and transform him into an animal-like creature. Again, fear tactics are supplemented by exaggerated racial stereotypes. Squinted eyes and enlarged buckteeth illustrate generalized physical attributes of the Japanese. The buckteeth also suggest a dopey quality, undermining the intelligence of the Japanese race. The drool hanging from his lips adds to his dim-witted appearance. Even the broken English in the caption mocks the intellect of the Japanese, and the use of the word “Jap” in the caption also demonstrates a racial slur used against the Japanese during WWII. This image verifies that multiple WWII propaganda posters achieved their purpose through virtually the same means: they instilled fear and racial prejudice against the Japanese in order to gain the United States’ support for the war.​ ​ Although the “Tokio Kid” represented the enemy overseas, I believe that the image also tainted Americans’ perception of Japanese Americans. The stereotypes represented in the poster attacked the entire Japanese race by linking their physical attributes to animalism and unintelligence. Japanese Americans shared the same physical characteristics as the Japanese, so Americans began to inaccurately associate them with the enemy. In this way, the racial stereotypes found in WWII propaganda prompted cultural hatred that transcended borders. The Japanese race became a common enemy, regardless of nationality.​ ​ The biased and often fallacious depictions of the Japanese were not only limited to animated posters——even respected media sources such as Life Magazine aided the frenzy. By examining the photographs in the December 22, 1941 edition of Life, it becomes clear that they are a direct form of propaganda (Figures 3 and 4). The text states that the photographs distinguish “friendly Chinese from enemy alien Japs.”(“How to Tell Japs from the Chinese,” Life Magazine, December 22, 1941, 81.) Skin color and facial features are generalized for each race, feeding into the stereotypes that permeated American psyches. These photographs put both races on display, treating them as specimens rather than equal human beings. However, while both races are objectified, the Chinese are portrayed in a positive light and the Japanese are displayed negatively.​ ​ In the 1940s, this image probably resulted in a similar audience reaction. Renteln’s article quoted an American political figure as testifying, “The Japanese are less assimilable and more dangerous as residents in this country… with great pride of race… they have no idea of assimilating… They never cease to be Japanese. (Renteln, 634.) This was a firsthand example of how negative attitudes toward the enemy “Japs” ultimately turned into prejudiced opinions toward Japanese Americans. In the minds of Anglo Americans, these perceptions justified the internment of Japanese Americans. Stereotypes portrayed in WWII propaganda images were used to rationalize the horrific conditions that were imposed upon this minority group. The anger, fear, and contempt felt toward the barbaric Japanese figures in propaganda images led Anglo Americans to treat Japanese Americans as if they were actually barbarians. By generalizing Japanese characteristics, propaganda images became one factor that led to the mistreatment of the entire Japanese race—even those who were American citizens.​ ​ A war can bring nations together or tear them apart. It can be the catalyst that allows new alliances to form, or it can cause discrimination against other nations. Furthermore, a war can cause furious hatred and distrust of a nation’s own people. This is the Enemy is an example of such hatred in bloom. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, U.S. citizens cried out for vengeance and rallied support through media forms such as propaganda posters. Accuracy was often ignored in favor of fear tactics and brutal portrayals of the enemy. Images such as This is the Enemy demonstrate these features and are an important tool to help historians analyze the biased perceptions that developed as an outcome of WWII, as well as the consequences that resulted.​ ​

    In-text: (A Journal of Undergraduate Writing - WWII Propaganda: The Influence of Racism, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: University of Missouri. 2021. A Journal of Undergraduate Writing - WWII Propaganda: The Influence of Racism. [online] Available at: <https://artifactsjournal.missouri.edu/2012/03/wwii-propaganda-the-influence-of-racism/> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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    Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid

    2021

    The US joining World War II with the subsequent reorientation of the huge American economy for military needs led to the fact that the giant sector of the entertainment industry began to work for the army, including animator artists. Military propaganda received a whole lot of high-quality propaganda products, and almost every institution and department of the country got its own recognizable style of propaganda posters.Any industrial injury plays into the hands of the Japanese. As well as any discarded suitable piece of duraluminum In 1942, the Office for Emergency Management (OEM) under the US Presidential Administration, together with the Office of War Information (OWI) and one of the country's largest aircraft manufacturing companies, Douglas, launched a large-scale campaign for the optimization of the production on its enterprises. It was focused on labor discipline and saving of tools and materials. The central figure in the campaign was Tokio Kid, created by artist Jack Campbell. Broken tools are equal to ammo made for the Japanese. As well as washing your hands and leaving work early — it also helps Tojo win the war It was not hard to recognize the Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in this cartoonish character giving out bad advice – moustache, glasses, jacket with boots and a service cap. Over the next three years, Douglas workshops were decorated with many different caricatures with ludicrous Japanese.​

    In-text: (Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Warspot.net. 2021. Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid. [online] Available at: <https://warspot.net/150-highlights-for-warspot-tokio-kid> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

  • Website

    Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid

    2021

    "Tokio Kid", Jack Campbell, Office for Emergency Management (OEM), 1942​

    In-text: (Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid, 2021)

    Your Bibliography: Warspot.net. 2021. Highlights for Warspot: Tokio Kid. [online] Available at: <https://warspot.net/150-highlights-for-warspot-tokio-kid> [Accessed 28 May 2021].

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