These are the sources and citations used to research Intercultural Reading. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Book

    Anderson, B.

    Imagined communities

    2006 - Verso - London

    In-text: (Anderson, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities. 3rd ed. London: Verso.

  • Journal



    Shaw, D. (2013). Deconstructing and Reconstructing ‘Transnational Cinema’. In S. Dennison (Ed.), Contemporary Hispanic Cinema: Interrogating the Transnational in Spanish and Latin American Film (pp. 47-66). Boydell & Brewer. transnational modes of production, distribution and exhibition - benefits a lot Brasilian films – with more online streaming companies and dvds and stuff, it is easier for films to be viewed transnationally. • transnational modes of narration - Stuff like Hollywood tropes, recurring motifs that appeal to people (shoehorned romance for instance) - “the cinematic storytelling devices used that make them accessible to audiences in many parts of the world” • film and cultural exchange - I don’t think its relevant but I don’t really understand it • transnational influences - Probably lots but I still dont get it • transnational critical approaches • transnational viewing practices • transregional/transcommunity films • transnational stars • transnational directors • the ethics of transnationalism • transnational collaborative networks • national films

    In-text: (Anon, 2019)

    Your Bibliography: Anon, (2019). .

  • Website

    Elbrick Kidnapping Chronology

    In-text: (, n.d.)

    Your Bibliography: (n.d.). Elbrick Kidnapping Chronology. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Mar. 2019].

  • Book

    Celli, C.

    National identity in global cinema

    2015 - Palgrave Macmillan - [Place of publication not identified]

    "how art can imitate reality and represent nature. When elements that define a nation’s historical and cultural identity appear in popular films, it is possible to see such imitation in action." p 1 "Hollywood, is actually more of an international than simply American phenomenon." p 1 "A sense of identity and belonging according to what was presented and reinforced in a national cinema became an important tool for the creation of national cultural consensuses" p 3 "Centralization allowed for the creation of national cultural consensus through the propagation of models of behavior displayed in the cinema" p 3 "The happy-ending pattern affirmed in Hollywood’s classical studio period " p 3 Idea of everyone, including Hollywood, copying hollywood to try and find a formula that people will enjoy p 4 " The centralized power in charge of production and censorship may promote certain narrative conventions favorable to their political world view. " p 4

    In-text: (Celli, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Celli, C. (2015). National identity in global cinema. [Place of publication not identified]: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Journal

    Christie, I.

    Where Is National Cinema Today (and Do We Still Need It)?

    2013 - Film History

    "My question is: can screen history help us think through this issue of nationality?" p 20 Against American films, others were and continue to be defined against by their localness or national identity p 21 "National and local specificity became an important component of the new forms of cultural impact that film was having during the 1960s, especially the extent to which it was reshaping people’s awareness of the world, both at home and internationally" pp. 22-3 Criteria for 'national film': "Some of their criteria are industrial, relating to place of production, national employment quota, and registration of companies involved. Others seek to guarantee the cultural identity of the work, by requiring some proportion of its creative personnel to be nationals, on the assumption that this will make the work ipso facto “national”—even though there is no guarantee that, for instance, a French team will not make a facsimile of a US thriller" p 23 ==> "It is easy to question and even ridicule such criteria, with points awarded for the nationality of director, writer, composer, and the like" p 24 "Another challenge to the “essentialist” concept of national cinema is growing academic enthusiasm for the “transnational”—a concept that seems to serve as a kind of benevolent counterpart to the perceived evil of globalization" p 24 "a renewed appetite for the local, the specific, and the “original” in many areas of consumption, encouraging us also to value cultural works that trace origins, show the local surviving against modern odds, or take us to exotically unfamiliar lands and cultures" p 24 "ambassadorial role" p 24 "Films can also become “national” in the sense of speaking for and to the nation at moments of political crisis and liberation." p 25 "Most historical narratives of national cinema draw heavily, if not exclusively, on films that enjoy some international reputation: effectively, they display national production at its most exportable" p 26 "the insight by Elsaesser and others that the “national” is intrinsically relational—dependent on who and where the observer is and on the institutions involved" p 28

    In-text: (Christie, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Christie, I. (2013). Where Is National Cinema Today (and Do We Still Need It)?. Film History, 25(1-2), p.19.

  • Chapter of an ed. book

    Crofts, S.

    Reconceptualising National Cinema

    2006 - British Film Institute - London

    "Especially in the West, national cinema is usually defined against Hollywood" p 44 "Hollywood is hardly ever spoken of as a national cinema, perhaps indicating its transnational reach" p 44 "Hollwood markets itself through well-established transnational networks and with relatively standardised market pitches of star, genre and production values" p 52

    In-text: (Crofts, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Crofts, S. (2006). Reconceptualising National Cinema. In: V. Vitali and P. Willemen, ed., Theorising National Cinema. London: British Film Institute.

  • Journal

    Davis, D. J.

    Four Days in September

    1998 - The American Historical Review

    Historical context: " The Brazilian military, which supported Vargas in the 1930s, established its own dictatorship in 1964. Although initially endorsed by the middle classes, the military government grew increasingly unpopular. Brazil saw unprecedented restrictions on civil liberties and an escalation in violations of human rights. Censorship and corruption were rampant as the government orchestrated an official Brazilian patriotism" p 633 " Bruno Barreto's 1997 film Four Days in September creates a window onto this tumultuous period in Brazilian history" p 633 " Based on the testimony of Fernando Gabeira in his 1979 book" p 633 " While remaining true to the spirit of Gabeira's testimony, Barreto and screenwriter Leopoldo Serran have taken several poetic liberties to adapt his work to the silver screen" - focus on characters - individual motivations - relationships/interactions p 633 " opted to tell this story employing techniques from the political thriller, a move that not only makes the story accessible to American audiences but also uncannily recalls the tensions within a population that was heavily censored and controlled." p 633 " Many of the members of MR-8 were middle-class "revolutionaries" untrained in guerrilla tactics and guided only by a naive or vague sense of revolutionary struggle" p 633 " Complete with historical legends illustrating important dates and places, and black-and-white footage from the time period, Four Days in September offers students of history insight into the complexities of life under dictatorship" p 633 " By filming a local soccer match at the Maracana stadium, a huge structure with a capacity for 200,000 spectators, Barreto recalls that this historical era was also a time of growing Brazilian patriotism and popular class celebration." p 633 " Barreto is careful not to create heroes and villains; rather, he recalls the multiplicity of emotions and responses to Brazilian dictatorship." p 634

    In-text: (Davis, 1998)

    Your Bibliography: Davis, D. (1998). Four Days in September. The American Historical Review, Vol. 103(No. 2).

  • DVD, video, or film

    Barreto, B.

    Four Days in September (O Que É Isso Companheiro?)

    1997 - Miramax Films - Brasil

    In-text: (Four Days in September (O Que É Isso Companheiro?), 1997)

    Your Bibliography: Four Days in September (O Que É Isso Companheiro?). (1997). [DVD] Directed by B. Barreto. Brasil: Miramax Films.

  • Journal

    Higson, A.

    The Concept of National Cinema

    1989 - Screen

    "the parameters of a national cinema should be drawn at the site of consumption as much as at the site of production of films" p 36 " nationalist myth-making" p 37 "There are perhaps two central methods, conceptually, of establishing or identifying the imaginary coherence, the specificity, of a national cinema." p 38 ==> HE SAID IMAGINARY!!!! "The discourses of'art', 'culture' and 'quality', and of'national identity' and 'nationhood', have historically been mobilised against Hollywood's mass entertainment film" p 41

    In-text: (Higson, 1989)

    Your Bibliography: Higson, A. (1989). The Concept of National Cinema. Screen, 30(4).

  • Journal

    Martin, E.

    Terrorism in film media: An international view of theatrical films

    2011 - Journal of War & Culture Studies

    Because both the kidnappers and the ambassador are portrayed sympathetically, Four Days in September challenges "the official War-on-Terrorism rhetoric" p 210 "THIRD CINEMA-STYLE CRITICAL FILMS" =/ Hollywood style films p 213 "In contrast to Hollywood-style productions with their binary, we/they, good/bad discourse, well-known actors, highly manipulated cinematography, War-on-Terrorism world-view and heroic narratives, Third Cinema-style films strive, above all, to make a political statement." p 213 "The result has been an iconoclastic cinema that developed independently in different parts of the world" p 214 "Their open-endedness also challenges Hollywood films' typical closure" p 215 "with extensive documentary footage" p 215 "Four Days in September leans heavily towards an informational kind of authenticity. Stephen Holden has called the film ‘an uneasy hybrid of political thriller and high-minded meditation on terrorism, its psychology and its consequences’ (Holden 1998: 1)." p 215

    In-text: (Martin, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: Martin, E. (2011). Terrorism in film media: An international view of theatrical films. Journal of War & Culture Studies, 4(2), pp.207-222.

  • Website

    Proyect, L.

    Four Days in September (by L. Proyect)


    In-text: (Proyect, 2019)

    Your Bibliography: Proyect, L. (2019). Four Days in September (by L. Proyect). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Mar. 2019].

  • Book

    Sethi, R.

    Myths of the Nation: National Identity and Literary Representation


    "This book is about the construction of models of nationalist ideology in the cultural sphere. The study seeks to underscore what lies behind the writing of ‘true’ and ‘authentic’ histories of the nation by treating historical fiction as the literary dimension of nationalist ideology. " p 2 Historical fiction as a means to construct national identity. p 3

    In-text: (Sethi, 2019)

    Your Bibliography: Sethi, R. (2019). Myths of the Nation: National Identity and Literary Representation.

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