These are the sources and citations used to research A woman's sexual behavior is controlled. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
“contrary to popular belief, female genital mutilation is not a practice prescribed in Islam...It is in fact, a cultural practice”
In-text: (Abraham, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Abraham, H., 2010. Female Genital Mutilation: Cultural or Religious Practice?. [online] Religion Nerd - ReligionNerd.com. Available at: <http://religionnerd.com/2010/11/01/female-genital-mutilation-%E2%80%93-cultural-or-religious-practice/> [Accessed 7 January 2015].
“A woman used to perform circumcision in Medina [Madîna]. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her: 'Do not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband’.”
In-text: (Ahmad, 2000)
Your Bibliography: Ahmad, I., 2000. ISLAM AND FEMALE CIRCUMCISION. [online] Minaret.org. Available at: <http://www.minaret.org/fgm-pamphlet.htm> [Accessed 7 January 2015].
“Christian Aid wants to see the ending of FGM... and therefore welcomes the inclusion of a target on harmful practices.” and We want to remind political and faith leaders that this commendable ambition needs long-term commitment and investment to address the damaging social and cultural norms that reinforce these practices.”
In-text: (Aid, 2014)
Your Bibliography: Aid, C., 2014. Christian Aid welcomes government ambition to tackle FGM and child marriage. [online] Christianaid.org.uk. Available at: <http://www.christianaid.org.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/July-2014/christian-aid-welcomes-government-ambition-to-tackle-fgm-and-child-marriage.aspx> [Accessed 7 January 2015].
In-text: (Koso-Thomas, 1987)
Your Bibliography: Koso-Thomas, O., 1987. Circumcision of women. London: Zed Books.
Table of facts.
In-text: (Moges, n.d.)
Your Bibliography: Moges, D., n.d. What is behind the tradition of FGM. [online] Available at: <http://www.african-women.org/documents/behind-FGM-tradition.pdf> [Accessed 7 January 2015].
“that circumcision of women is mustahabb but not obligatory.” and says “female circumcision has not been prescribed for no reason, rather there is wisdom behind it and it brings many benefits.” and “I have seen many cases of sickness caused by the lack of circumcision.” and “for us in the Muslim world female circumcision is, above all else, obedience to Islam, which means acting in accordance with the fitrah and following the Sunnah which encourages it”. and “must be good in all aspects, including health aspects. If the benefits are not apparent now, they will become known in the future”
In-text: (Muhammad and Al-Munajjid, 1997)
Your Bibliography: Muhammad, S. and Al-Munajjid, S., 1997. Medical benefits of female circumcision - islamqa.info. [online] Islamqa.info. Available at: <http://islamqa.info/en/45528> [Accessed 2 January 2015].
" a cultural, not religious, tradition used to prepare girls for womanhood" and "these women become sexual objects and reproductive vehicles for men"
In-text: (N, 1993)
Your Bibliography: N, T., 1993. Female genital mutilation: a call for global action. New York New York Women Ink 1993., [online] 097837(097837). Available at: <http://www.popline.org/node/333993> [Accessed 1 January 2015].
mutilation “is primarily a social practice, not a religious one”
In-text: (Robinson, 1998)
Your Bibliography: Robinson, B., 1998. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION FEMALE (CIRCUMCISION) IN AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST AND FAR EAST. [online] Religioustolerance.org. Available at: <http://www.religioustolerance.org/fem_cirm1.htm> [Accessed 7 January 2015].
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