These are the sources and citations used to research davids. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    "... extracts the heat for use within the house. Solar energy can also be used to generate electricity in photovoltaic (PV) cells. A PV cell may power your calculator."

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: 2020. [online] Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/24709718/Thesis_report_solar_wind_modelling> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    "... Animal waste (e.g. animal slurry from a farm) can be treated to provide gases that can be burned to generate electricity. Landfill sites emit gases (mainly "

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: 2020. [online] Available at: <https://www.academia.edu/26715420/Alternative_energy_and_climate_change_manuscript> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    "... the refrigerant absorbs the latent heat from the outside air and evaporates. ... The vapour passes into the compressor and is compressed, increasing its pressure "

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: Airflow.ie. 2020. [online] Available at: <https://airflow.ie/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Daikin_LT_Brochure.pdf> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Awona, E. and profile, V.

    Renewable Energy

    2020

    “Flowing rivers have kinetic energy and this energy can be collected and used; Hydroelectric power is generated by the falling of water through a turbine.” “Most people live on flatter land, so most Hydroelectric schemes require large dams and flood a lot of land”. “The Supply of Electricity is Quite Cheap After It Has Been Built”. “The River Flows Continually and Provides a Constant Source of Energy”. “Organic matter can be burned to provide heat or fermented to produce gas”. “About 200 years ago Biomass Energy in the form of wood was the major source of energy. In many parts of the developing world biomass is still the major source of energy”. “Energy Can Be Extracted from Wastes” “Biomass Energy Can Be Used in Similar Ways to Fossil Fuels” “Biomass Energy Sources Are Not Environmentally friendly” “Biomass Energy Sources Recycle Carbon into the Atmosphere When They Are Burned Just the Same as Fossil Fuels” “Carbon Dioxide is Produced When These Fuels Are Burned and This Is a Major Cause of the Greenhouse Effected” Some sources of energy are known as renewable energy resources and this is because they will not run out unlike nonrenewable energy sources There are many Renewable energy resources, and these include Solar, Geothermal, Wind, Wave, Tidal, Biomass and Hydroelectric Energy. Solar Energy Every year the Earth receives around about 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kJ of energy and the energy from the sun creates our climate that causes the wind and waves. The sun is the source of most energy resources available to us, including fossil fuels. People now use the energy of the sun directly. This is what we call solar energy. The word Solar means Sun. How We Collect Solar Energy Solar energy can be used to heat water in solar panels, simple types use flat panels mounted on a south-facing roof or wall. Water goes through the channels or pipes inside each panel and the inside is usually painted black, they are painted black because the heat absorbs black surfaces more easily. The water is then heated and is pumped to a heat exchanger that transfers the heat for use around the house. Solar energy can also be used to generate electricity in photovoltaic (PV) cells, The photovoltaic is similar to the solar panels with the main difference being that they work from daylight not direct sunlight until recently these (PV) cells were very costly to produce however when I visited the homes exhibition in Glasgow I found that many companies were promoting this type of energy as it was now more affordable to buy. Where We Collect Solar Energy The energy from the sun can be collected anywhere. In the UK the average amount of solar energy that is available is about 4,000 kJ per square meter. If 20% of the world’s population had solar panels then this would help to save 30% of the annual energy demands. Advantages of Solar Energy Solar Energy Is Renewable. It Is Non-Polluting. The Maintenance Is Free. Disadvantages of Solar Energy Cloud Cover Can Reduce the efficiency of Solar Energy. Less Solar Energy in Available the Closer to The Poles of The Earth. How Does It Works Solar Panels Fitted on A South Facing Roof. How Do Solar Panels Work? Solar Energy Diagram 1 Firstly, Solar panels convert sunlight to DC current. 2 Then, an inverter converts the DC electricity to AC electricity. 3 After that, Electricity then gets used by your home appliances. 4 Finally, Extra electricity gets credited into the grid. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earths crust. Temperature at the earths core is over 70,000C, The rocks about 1km down below the surface also quite hot about 5,000C. How We Collect Geothermal In some places there are reservoirs of hot water below the surface that can be tapped to provide energy, the water is then pumped to the surface and used to heat buildings. Where We Collect Geothermal Energy There are not many places that can access geothermal energy cost effectively, there are geothermal power stations in the USA, New Zealand and Iceland. In Southampton there is a district heating scheme which uses hot water pumped up from about 1,800 meters below the ground, this water is about 700C and is used to heat several nearby offices and civic buildings. Advantages of Geothermal Energy It Is Renewable It Can Be Non-Polluting as In Southampton Geothermal Energy Will Not Run Out The Running Costs for Geothermal Energy Is Very Low Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy It Can Only Be Used in Some Areas Around the World, Where the Crust Is Thin, Hot and Rocks Are Near the Surface Sometimes the Hot Water That is pumped to the Surface Contains Pollutants Such as Sulphur How Does It Work 1 Firstly A heat exchanger contains refrigerant, which is colder than the outside air. As the air passes the exchanger, the refrigerant absorbs the latent heat from the outside air and evaporates. 2 Then The vapour passes into the compressor and is compressed, increasing its pressure and temperature, effectively concentrating the heat. 3 After that Hot vapour is condensed in the second heat exchanger where the heat is rejected and the vapour condenses back into liquid. The rejected heat passes into the central heating and hot water system, ready for use in the home. 4 Finally The liquid refrigerant passes back through the expansion valve, ready to start the cycle again. Wave Energy Waves are caused by the action of winds on the sea and they can be many meters in height and contain a great deal of energy. This energy can be used to drive the turbines that generate electricity. How We Collect Wave Energy There two main types of wave energy collectors. The first type makes the waves travel into man-made channels and the water passes through a turbine that generates electricity. The second type uses the up and down movement of a wave to push air. Where We Collect Wave Energy Wave energy can be collected in areas close to the shore. There has been one working on the island if Islay in Scotland since early 1990and produces 75kW of electricity. Advantages of Wave Energy It Does Not Affect The wildlife It Is A Non-Polluting Source of Energy The Wave Turbines Are Quite Quiet to Operate Disadvantages of Wave Energy Wave Heights Vary A lot and Do Not Produce A Constant Supply of Energy The Turbines Can Be an Unpleasant View to Look At How Does It Work 1 Waves Come Through the Generator 2 The Waves Seal Against the Roof of The Generator 3 Air then Gets Compressed 4 That Air Soon Gets Releases Through the Turbo Generator 5 After that It Goes to The Electrical Equipment 6 Finally the Remaining Energy is Disposed Through the Baffle Tidal Energy Tides are caused by gravity pulling the Moon and slightly pulling the Sun, High tide and low tides can have many meters in difference and the energy of the tidal movement can be used to generate electricity. How We Collect Tidal Energy At high tide water can be trapped behind a barrage and then let out as the tide lowers, this water is then passed through a turbine that generates electricity. Where Do We Use Tidal Energy? Barrages are built in river estuaries like the River Severn in the UK and They have large tidal ranges. Advantages of Tidal Energy It Does Not Depend on the Weather The Cost of Producing the Electricity this Way is Reasonably Cheap The Rise and Fall of The Tide Is Constant Disadvantages of Tidal Energy Barrages Across river Estuaries Can Change the Flow of Water and the Habitat for Birds and Other Wildlife Present Designs Do Not Produce A lot of Electricity How Does It Work 1 Firstly Water Moves in and Out Past the Turbine as The Tides Move and Flow 2 Then the Turbines Turn Generator Producing Electricity 3 Finally the Electricity is Returned by Cables Ran Under the Water for Use Ashore Hydroelectric Energy “Flowing Rivers have kinetic energy and this energy can be collected and used. Hydroelectric power is generated by the falling of water through a turbine.” How We Collect Hydroelectric Energy A dam is built across the river and water will flow in a controlled way through turbines that generate electricity. A dam across a river can provide a cheap, constant source of Hydroelectric power for large communities. Why is Hydroelectric Energy Used Hydroelectric power can be built in areas that have fast-flowing rivers that are hilly and the rivers flow down steep slopes, On flat rivers the river flows more slowly and very large artificial dams need to be built to create a reservoir to move the water through a turbine. Most people live on flatter land, so most Hydroelectric schemes require large dams and flood a lot of land. Advantages of Hydroelectric Energy The Supply of Electricity is Quite Cheap After It Has Been Built The River Flows Continually and Provides a Constant Source of Energy Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy The Building of Large Dams Flood Areas and Cause Damage to Habitats Changing the Flow of a River Will Change the Water Supply to The Land Close to The Sea and This Can Cause Problems with Crops Getting the Right Amount of Water to Allow Harvest Hydroelectric Scheme Sites Are Best to Be Built on Hilly Areas and These Are Not Always Near Towns How Does It Work 1 The transmission lines conduct electricity, ultimately to homes and business. 2 Then the dam stores the water. 3 After that the penstock carries water to turbines. 4 Generators are then rotated by the turbines to generate electricity. 5 Turbines are soon rotated by the force of the water on their blades. 6 Finally the cross section of conventional Hydropower facility that uses an impoundment dam. Biomass Energy Biomass is material from living things like a planet, animal or bacteria. Organic matter can be burned to provide heat or fermented to produce gas. How We Collect Biomass Plant material like wood or hay can be burned to provide heat, this heat will make steam and generate electricity in a power station. Animal waste from a farm can be treated and then it will provide gasses that can be burned to generate electricity. Landfill sites release a gas called methane and this can be used to provide energy. Some plant materials such as sugar cane and sweetcorn maize can be fermented to produce alcohol, alcohol can be used in cars as a substitute for petrol. Oilseed rape are the fields of yellow flowers that you see in the UK in summer and this produces oil, approximately one third of the seed is oil and it can be treated with chemicals to allow the oil to be used as fuel for diesel engines this fuel is called rape methyl (RME). Where Is Biomass Energy Used? About 200 years ago Biomass Energy in the form of wood was the major source of energy. In many parts of the developing world biomass is still the major source of energy. Brazil has a vast area of trees and this allows many cars to run on alcohol rather than petrol, there is a large Biomass plant in Sweden and the UK trying to develop a power station that will run solely on wood from a nearby farm. In developed countries around the world people are developing ways of using Biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels. Advantages of Biomass Energy Biomass is a Renewable Resource as Trees Can be Planted Energy Can Be Extracted from Wastes Biomass Energy Can Be Used in Similar Ways to Fossil Fuels Sources of Biomass Are Easily Available Throughout the World Disadvantages of Biomass Energy Biomass Energy Sources Are Not Environmentally friendly Biomass Energy Sources Recycle Carbon into the Atmosphere When They Are Burned Just the Same as Fossil Fuels Carbon Dioxide is Produced When These Fuels Are Burned and This Is a Major Cause of the Greenhouse Effected

    In-text: (Awona and profile, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Awona, E. and profile, V., 2020. Renewable Energy. [online] Petrolyte.blogspot.com. Available at: <http://petrolyte.blogspot.com/p/renewable-energy.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Awona, E. and profile, V.

    Renewable Energy

    2020

    "... energy can also be used to generate electricity in photovoltaic (PV) cells. A PV cell may power your calculator. Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductors, ... These are often hilly or mountainous regions where rivers flow down steep slopes. On flatter land rivers flow more slowly, so very large artificial dams have to be ... Most people live on flatter land, so most hydroelectric schemes require large dams and flood a lot of land. Advantages ... The river flows continually and provides a ... Animal waste (e.g. animal slurry from a farm) can be treated to provide gases that can be burned to generate electricity. Landfill sites emit gases (mainly ... Energy can be extracted from wastes. Biomass energy can be used in similar ways to fossil fuels. Sources of biomass are readily available worldwide."

    In-text: (Awona and profile, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Awona, E. and profile, V., 2020. Renewable Energy. [online] Petrolyte.blogspot.com. Available at: <http://petrolyte.blogspot.com/p/renewable-energy.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Awona, E. and profile, V.

    Renewable Energy

    2020

    "... These are often hilly or mountainous regions where rivers flow down steep slopes. On flatter land rivers flow more slowly, so very large artificial dams have to be ... Most people live on flatter land, so most hydroelectric schemes require large dams and flood a lot of land. Advantages ... The river flows continually and provides a ... Animal waste (e.g. animal slurry from a farm) can be treated to provide gases that can be burned to generate electricity. Landfill sites emit gases (mainl

    In-text: (Awona and profile, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Awona, E. and profile, V., 2020. Renewable Energy. [online] Petrolyte.blogspot.com. Available at: <http://petrolyte.blogspot.com/p/renewable-energy.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?

    2020

    Wind energy technology has grown a large amount in the past decade and the UK is now the sixth largest wind strength producer inside the international after China, the USA, Germany, India and Spain. In 2017, 15% of The United Kingdom’s entire electricity became generated from wind energy, enough to power 12.7 million homes across the USA. This makes wind our number one source of renewable energy in Britain at the existing time. In fact, we now generate twice as much power from wind electricity as we do from coal which is brilliant for the future of the country and our planet. How Is Wind Energy Generated? Wind energy sincerely begins with the sun and is largely a shape of solar electricity. The solar heats the floor of the earth unevenly because of the earth’s irregular surfaces of mountains, hills, oceans and different terrain. This choppy heating of the earth creates regions of hot air that rises and cold air that sinks and moves into its place. This motion of air and change in air pressure causes wind to form. The winds natural power can then be turned into electricity using wind turbines that are grouped collectively in wind farms, each in land and stale the coast of the UK. Wind Turbines To flip the winds energy into energy it requires using wind generators placed in windy areas of open land or in shallow water surrounding the coast of the UK. Wind generators are huge structures, generally around 150 meters tall, crowded with two or three rotating blades. The winds strength and kinetic electricity motive the blades spin in clockwise which powers a generator that converts the movement into energy. Wind Turbine blades generally span twenty to eighty meters and flip thirteen to twenty instances in a line with a minute depending on the electricity of the wind, the dimensions and kind of turbine. There are currently 8,435 onshore turbines in operation throughout the United Kingdom plus a similarly 1,832 positioned offshore. This amounts to a complete maximum potential of over 19,800 megawatts of power and equated to 15% of Britain's total electricity generation in 2017. This swelled in addition in the final 3 months of 2017 when a total of 18.5% of our total power became generated by means of wind power. These numbers are still underneath most different fossil gas energies however are increasing all the time as our technology advances and new wind farms pop up throughout the country. In the UK, our tallest wind turbines are located off the coast of Liverpool at the Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Standing at 195 meters, they're taller than the Blackpool Tower and the Gherkin skyscraper in London. With eighty-meter-long blades, each turbine has a potential of 8 megawatts which is enough to power a home for 29 hours with simply an unmarried rotation. As the wind is variable at some stage in the day, so is the quantity of instances the blades flip meaning the amount of power generated increases and reduces constantly. Because of this, wind turbines are regularly grouped collectively in ‘wind farms’ to both maximize output and generate a consistent deliver of energy throughout the day. Chapter 3 Why is Wind Energy Needed? Our source of power needs is changing, and so is the manner we are encountering them. The UK has a legally binding commitment to preserve dramatically reducing its greenhouse gasoline emissions over the coming decades; and strength production is the largest modern-day supply of those emissions. Not best does burning fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases, however fossil fuel reserves are a finite resource and increasingly want to be imported from overseas. The wind, in contrast, is freely available and for ever and ever renewable; and the United Kingdom has extra wind than any country in mainland Europe. As onshore wind technologies have matured, onshore wind has also turn out to be the lowest cost shape of recent large-scale electricity generation within the UK - cheaper than gas and almost half of the rate in keeping with kWh of latest nuclear energy stations. Whilst power performance is growing, modifications consisting of the growth in use of electric vehicles and the increasing use of electricity as a supply of heat also are likely to growth the need for energy into the future. Generating power from the wind now provides, and will retain to provide inside the future, a secure, affordable, renewable and small carbon manner of assembly the UK’s power needs. Wind turbines are less of a risk for climate change as millions of humans can be afflicted by the results of climate trade worldwide. In order to maintain further dangers of weather exchange at bay, growing countries want to decrease their oxygen emission with at the least 80-95 percent earlier than 2050. Climate scientists agree in this fact. In order to reap this, 80-90 percentage of our energy must be generated through using renewable methods by 2050. Now, the global electricity production by means of renewable source is set 10 percent which became 4.6 percentage in 2012. As you could see, the manufacturing of renewable power has positively changed a lot however if we want to alternate this to 80-90 percent by using 2050, we need to invest in renewables proper now because otherwise we aren’t going to get by that percentage. The Global Wind Energy Council calculated that by 2030, 19 percentage of all globally generated electricity may be generated with wind turbines, and by using 2050 that percent might be 25-30. The cost of wind turbines is relatively cheap, Wind generators on land are the most inexpensive shape of renewable electricity. Wind turbines on land best use about 4 cents subsidy according to kWh. For sea wind, that charge is presently 7 cents, however, to rapidly decrease. Nowadays, in places along the coast, turbines can run almost without subsidy. The fossil gasoline enterprise on the alternative hand, gets an outstanding quantity of subsidy. Contamination is extremely expensive. The expenses of infection due to fossil fuels – weather change, air pollutants are actually paid with tax-payers money. Turbine deliver energy cleanly. Those who assume turbines are expensive, typically do now not bear in mind those factors: The air pollution because of electricity generation with fossil fuels, and the fees it brings with it concerning weather change. If your component those expenses into the equation, renewable power can easily compete with fossil energy, wind electricity being the most inexpensive of these methods. Now, the fees for the emission of 1 tone of CO2 is a measly five euros, at the same time as the real charges for the emission is around 67 euros. 13 times as high. Job possibilities: Wind power creates plenty extra job possibilities than strength flora reliant on fossil fuels. The costs of fossil gasoline will keep increasing, as the deliver lessens. The fees of wind turbines will keep falling as they end up less difficult to install, and the demand grows. And unlike with fossil fuels, the wind supply will never run out. We want to put money into wind which will maintain the destiny financial system on most effective renewable strength. If we do no longer make the transition now, destiny generations could have a sizeable problem. As Wind Energy is very popular it provides many people with jobs, according to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, ‘’Wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent jobs that a fossil power plant can! The study was issued by Greenpeace and focused on the Dutch provinces Groningen and Friesland’’. With Wind turbines that are broken, damaged or don’t work they can be recycled and made into new one which is helping our planet as we are not just using metal and wasting it. Because technology develops, new turbines are extra nature-friendly than older models. Modern wind generators may be recycled quite effectively, and leave very little waste, as a variety of the materials may be reused to construct other turbines. The only elements for which this doesn’t apply, are the rotor blades, as they are normally made from fiberglass. They can be recycled, however not for wind turbine parts, and they are frequently used to make bollards. Currently, studies are being executed to see if it can be used for other purposes.

    In-text: (Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Coriolis-energy.com. 2020. Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?. [online] Available at: <http://www.coriolis-energy.com/wind_energy/wind_index.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?

    2020

    "... and the UK has more wind than any country in mainland Europe. As onshore wind technologies have matured, onshore wind has also become the lowest cost form of new large-scale electricity generation in the UK - cheaper "

    In-text: (Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Coriolis-energy.com. 2020. Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?. [online] Available at: <http://www.coriolis-energy.com/wind_energy/wind_index.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    ".. c transmission lines - conduct electricity, ultimately to homes and businesses d generator. - rotated by the turbines to generate electricity e turbine. - turned by the "

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: Ecommons.cornell.edu. 2020. [online] Available at: <https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/2804/11_chapter11.pdf?sequence=10&isAllowed=y> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Air Source Heat Pumps - Empower Energy Ltd

    2020

    "... exchanger where heat is rejected, which feeds into the central heating and hot water system. 4. The liquid refrigerant passes back through an expansion valve "

    In-text: (Air Source Heat Pumps - Empower Energy Ltd, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Empower Energy Ltd. 2020. Air Source Heat Pumps - Empower Energy Ltd. [online] Available at: <https://empowerenergy.co.uk/domestic-solar/air-source-heat-pumps/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Energy in the UK | Energy UK

    2020

    "... the energy sector supported 620,000 jobs across the UK - equivalent to 1 in 46 jobs in the UK; Since 1990 the power sector has lowered CO2 emissions by 68 "

    In-text: (Energy in the UK | Energy UK, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Energy-uk.org.uk. 2020. Energy In The UK | Energy UK. [online] Available at: <https://www.energy-uk.org.uk/energy-industry/energy-in-the-uk.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Renewable generation | Energy UK

    2020

    "... The RO rewards renewable output over the lifetime of a project. The Feed-in Tariff (FiT) is designed to support small scale renewable installations up to 5MW.

    In-text: (Renewable generation | Energy UK, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Energy-uk.org.uk. 2020. Renewable Generation | Energy UK. [online] Available at: <https://www.energy-uk.org.uk/energy-industry/renewable-generation.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    Sustainable Energy. Some sources of energy are known as renewable energy resources and this is because they will not run out unlike nonrenewable energy sources There are many Renewable energy resources, and these include Solar, Geothermal, Wind, Wave, Tidal, Biomass and Hydroelectric Energy. Solar Energy Every year the Earth receives around about 300,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kJ of energy and the energy from the sun creates our climate that causes the wind and waves. The sun is the source of most energy resources available to us, including fossil fuels. People now use the energy of the sun directly. This is what we call solar energy. The word Solar means Sun. How We Collect Solar Energy Solar energy can be used to heat water in solar panels, simple types use flat panels mounted on a south-facing roof or wall. Water goes through the channels or pipes inside each panel and the inside is usually painted black, they are painted black because the heat absorbs black surfaces more easily. The water is then heated and is pumped to a heat exchanger that transfers the heat for use around the house. Solar energy can also be used to generate electricity in photovoltaic (PV) cells, The photovoltaic is similar to the solar panels with the main difference being that they work from daylight not direct sunlight until recently these (PV) cells were very costly to produce however when I visited the homes exhibition in Glasgow I found that many companies were promoting this type of energy as it was now more affordable to buy. Where We Collect Solar Energy The energy from the sun can be collected anywhere. In the UK the average amount of solar energy that is available is about 4,000 kJ per square meter. If 20% of the world’s population had solar panels then this would help to save 30% of the annual energy demands. Advantages of Solar Energy Solar Energy Is Renewable. It Is Non-Polluting. The Maintenance Is Free. Disadvantages of Solar Energy Cloud Cover Can Reduce the efficiency of Solar Energy. Less Solar Energy in Available the Closer to The Poles of The Earth. How Does It Works Solar Panels Fitted on A South Facing Roof. How Do Solar Panels Work? Solar Energy Diagram 1 Firstly, Solar panels convert sunlight to DC current. 2 Then, an inverter converts the DC electricity to AC electricity. 3 After that, Electricity then gets used by your home appliances. 4 Finally, Extra electricity gets credited into the grid. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earths crust. Temperature at the earths core is over 70,000C, The rocks about 1km down below the surface also quite hot about 5,000C. How We Collect Geothermal In some places there are reservoirs of hot water below the surface that can be tapped to provide energy, the water is then pumped to the surface and used to heat buildings. Where We Collect Geothermal Energy There are not many places that can access geothermal energy cost effectively, there are geothermal power stations in the USA, New Zealand and Iceland. In Southampton there is a district heating scheme which uses hot water pumped up from about 1,800 meters below the ground, this water is about 700C and is used to heat several nearby offices and civic buildings. Advantages of Geothermal Energy It Is Renewable It Can Be Non-Polluting as In Southampton Geothermal Energy Will Not Run Out The Running Costs for Geothermal Energy Is Very Low Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy It Can Only Be Used in Some Areas Around the World, Where the Crust Is Thin, Hot and Rocks Are Near the Surface Sometimes the Hot Water That is pumped to the Surface Contains Pollutants Such as Sulphur How Does It Work 1 Firstly A heat exchanger contains refrigerant, which is colder than the outside air. As the air passes the exchanger, the refrigerant absorbs the latent heat from the outside air and evaporates. 2 Then The vapour passes into the compressor and is compressed, increasing its pressure and temperature, effectively concentrating the heat. 3 After that Hot vapour is condensed in the second heat exchanger where the heat is rejected and the vapour condenses back into liquid. The rejected heat passes into the central heating and hot water system, ready for use in the home. 4 Finally The liquid refrigerant passes back through the expansion valve, ready to start the cycle again. Wave Energy Waves are caused by the action of winds on the sea and they can be many meters in height and contain a great deal of energy. This energy can be used to drive the turbines that generate electricity. How We Collect Wave Energy There two main types of wave energy collectors. The first type makes the waves travel into man-made channels and the water passes through a turbine that generates electricity. The second type uses the up and down movement of a wave to push air. Where We Collect Wave Energy Wave energy can be collected in areas close to the shore. There has been one working on the island if Islay in Scotland since early 1990and produces 75kW of electricity. Advantages of Wave Energy It Does Not Affect The wildlife It Is A Non-Polluting Source of Energy The Wave Turbines Are Quite Quiet to Operate Disadvantages of Wave Energy Wave Heights Vary A lot and Do Not Produce A Constant Supply of Energy The Turbines Can Be an Unpleasant View to Look At How Does It Work 1 Waves Come Through the Generator 2 The Waves Seal Against the Roof of The Generator 3 Air then Gets Compressed 4 That Air Soon Gets Releases Through the Turbo Generator 5 After that It Goes to The Electrical Equipment 6 Finally the Remaining Energy is Disposed Through the Baffle Tidal Energy Tides are caused by gravity pulling the Moon and slightly pulling the Sun, High tide and low tides can have many meters in difference and the energy of the tidal movement can be used to generate electricity. How We Collect Tidal Energy At high tide water can be trapped behind a barrage and then let out as the tide lowers, this water is then passed through a turbine that generates electricity. Where Do We Use Tidal Energy? Barrages are built in river estuaries like the River Severn in the UK and They have large tidal ranges. Advantages of Tidal Energy It Does Not Depend on the Weather The Cost of Producing the Electricity this Way is Reasonably Cheap The Rise and Fall of The Tide Is Constant Disadvantages of Tidal Energy Barrages Across river Estuaries Can Change the Flow of Water and the Habitat for Birds and Other Wildlife Present Designs Do Not Produce A lot of Electricity How Does It Work 1 Firstly Water Moves in and Out Past the Turbine as The Tides Move and Flow 2 Then the Turbines Turn Generator Producing Electricity 3 Finally the Electricity is Returned by Cables Ran Under the Water for Use Ashore Hydroelectric Energy “Flowing Rivers have kinetic energy and this energy can be collected and used. Hydroelectric power is generated by the falling of water through a turbine.” How We Collect Hydroelectric Energy A dam is built across the river and water will flow in a controlled way through turbines that generate electricity. A dam across a river can provide a cheap, constant source of Hydroelectric power for large communities. Why is Hydroelectric Energy Used Hydroelectric power can be built in areas that have fast-flowing rivers that are hilly and the rivers flow down steep slopes, On flat rivers the river flows more slowly and very large artificial dams need to be built to create a reservoir to move the water through a turbine. Most people live on flatter land, so most Hydroelectric schemes require large dams and flood a lot of land. Advantages of Hydroelectric Energy The Supply of Electricity is Quite Cheap After It Has Been Built The River Flows Continually and Provides a Constant Source of Energy Disadvantages of Hydroelectric Energy The Building of Large Dams Flood Areas and Cause Damage to Habitats Changing the Flow of a River Will Change the Water Supply to The Land Close to The Sea and This Can Cause Problems with Crops Getting the Right Amount of Water to Allow Harvest Hydroelectric Scheme Sites Are Best to Be Built on Hilly Areas and These Are Not Always Near Towns How Does It Work 1 The transmission lines conduct electricity, ultimately to homes and business. 2 Then the dam stores the water. 3 After that the penstock carries water to turbines. 4 Generators are then rotated by the turbines to generate electricity. 5 Turbines are soon rotated by the force of the water on their blades. 6 Finally the cross section of conventional Hydropower facility that uses an impoundment dam. Biomass Energy Biomass is material from living things like a planet, animal or bacteria. Organic matter can be burned to provide heat or fermented to produce gas. How We Collect Biomass Plant material like wood or hay can be burned to provide heat, this heat will make steam and generate electricity in a power station. Animal waste from a farm can be treated and then it will provide gasses that can be burned to generate electricity. Landfill sites release a gas called methane and this can be used to provide energy. Some plant materials such as sugar cane and sweetcorn maize can be fermented to produce alcohol, alcohol can be used in cars as a substitute for petrol. Oilseed rape are the fields of yellow flowers that you see in the UK in summer and this produces oil, approximately one third of the seed is oil and it can be treated with chemicals to allow the oil to be used as fuel for diesel engines this fuel is called rape methyl (RME). Where Is Biomass Energy Used? About 200 years ago Biomass Energy in the form of wood was the major source of energy. In many parts of the developing world biomass is still the major source of energy. Brazil has a vast area of trees and this allows many cars to run on alcohol rather than petrol, there is a large Biomass plant in Sweden and the UK trying to develop a power station that will run solely on wood from a nearby farm. In developed countries around the world people are developing ways of using Biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels. Advantages of Biomass Energy Biomass is a Renewable Resource as Trees Can be Planted Energy Can Be Extracted from Wastes Biomass Energy Can Be Used in Similar Ways to Fossil Fuels Sources of Biomass Are Easily Available Throughout the World Disadvantages of Biomass Energy Biomass Energy Sources Are Not Environmentally friendly Biomass Energy Sources Recycle Carbon into the Atmosphere When They Are Burned Just the Same as Fossil Fuels Carbon Dioxide is Produced When These Fuels Are Burned and This Is a Major Cause of the Greenhouse Effected

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: Greenstarschool.org. 2020. [online] Available at: <https://greenstarschool.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/EnergyConservation-Guidance.pdf> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    N.V., D.

    UKEPCEN11-907_heating_range

    2020

    "... A heat exchanger contains refrigerant, which is colder than the outside air. As the air passes ... the exchanger, the refrigerant absorbs the latent "

    In-text: (N.V., 2020)

    Your Bibliography: N.V., D., 2020. UKEPCEN11-907_Heating_Range. [online] Issuu. Available at: <https://issuu.com/denv00/docs/ukecpen10-741_daikin_heating_catalogue> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind energy? | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... The costs of wind turbines will keep falling as they become easier to install, and the demand grows. And unlike with fossil fuels, the wind supply "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Energy? | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-for-wind-energy-2019/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind energy? | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... For sea wind, that price is currently 7 cents, but that will rapidly decrease. Nowadays, in places along the coast, wind turbines can run almost "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Energy? | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-for-wind-energy-2016/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind energy?(reason 4, 5, 6 and 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... According to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Energy?(Reason 4, 5, 6 And 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-wind-energy-reason-4-7-2019/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind energy?(reason 4, 5, 6 and 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... According to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent ... The study was issued by Greenpeace, and focused on the Dutch provinces Groningen and Friesland. Fortunately, sustainability remains an "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Energy?(Reason 4, 5, 6 And 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-wind-energy-reason-4-7-2019/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind power?(reason 4, 5, 6 and 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... According to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Power?(Reason 4, 5, 6 And 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-wind-energy-reason-4-5-6-7-2016/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    News, W.

    11 reasons for why wind power?(reason 4, 5, 6 and 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "... According to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent ... The study was issued by Greenpeace, and focused on the Dutch provinces Groningen and Friesland. History-WES-LW-assembly "

    In-text: (News, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: News, W., 2020. 11 Reasons For Why Wind Power?(Reason 4, 5, 6 And 7) | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Windenergysolutions.nl. Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/wes-school/11-reasons-wind-energy-reason-4-5-6-7-2016/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Buy Heat Pumps in Ireland | Air To Water Heat Pumps Online in Ireland - NRG Panel

    2020

    "... Hot vapour is condensed in the second heat exchanger, rejected heat is passed onto heating/ hot water system. ... The liquid refrigerant passes back through the "

    In-text: (Buy Heat Pumps in Ireland | Air To Water Heat Pumps Online in Ireland - NRG Panel, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: NRG Panel. 2020. Buy Heat Pumps In Ireland | Air To Water Heat Pumps Online In Ireland - NRG Panel. [online] Available at: <https://nrgpanel.ie/air-to-water-heat-pump/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?

    2020

    Wind energy technology has grown a large amount in the past decade and the UK is now the sixth largest wind strength producer inside the international after China, the USA, Germany, India and Spain. In 2017, 15% of The United Kingdom’s entire electricity became generated from wind energy, enough to power 12.7 million homes across the USA. This makes wind our number one source of renewable energy in Britain at the existing time. In fact, we now generate twice as much power from wind electricity as we do from coal which is brilliant for the future of the country and our planet. How Is Wind Energy Generated? Wind energy sincerely begins with the sun and is largely a shape of solar electricity. The solar heats the floor of the earth unevenly because of the earth’s irregular surfaces of mountains, hills, oceans and different terrain. This choppy heating of the earth creates regions of hot air that rises and cold air that sinks and moves into its place. This motion of air and change in air pressure causes wind to form. The winds natural power can then be turned into electricity using wind turbines that are grouped collectively in wind farms, each in land and stale the coast of the UK. Wind Turbines To flip the winds energy into energy it requires using wind generators placed in windy areas of open land or in shallow water surrounding the coast of the UK. Wind generators are huge structures, generally around 150 meters tall, crowded with two or three rotating blades. The winds strength and kinetic electricity motive the blades spin in clockwise which powers a generator that converts the movement into energy. Wind Turbine blades generally span twenty to eighty meters and flip thirteen to twenty instances in a line with a minute depending on the electricity of the wind, the dimensions and kind of turbine. There are currently 8,435 onshore turbines in operation throughout the United Kingdom plus a similarly 1,832 positioned offshore. This amounts to a complete maximum potential of over 19,800 megawatts of power and equated to 15% of Britain's total electricity generation in 2017. This swelled in addition in the final 3 months of 2017 when a total of 18.5% of our total power became generated by means of wind power. These numbers are still underneath most different fossil gas energies however are increasing all the time as our technology advances and new wind farms pop up throughout the country. In the UK, our tallest wind turbines are located off the coast of Liverpool at the Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Standing at 195 meters, they're taller than the Blackpool Tower and the Gherkin skyscraper in London. With eighty-meter-long blades, each turbine has a potential of 8 megawatts which is enough to power a home for 29 hours with simply an unmarried rotation. As the wind is variable at some stage in the day, so is the quantity of instances the blades flip meaning the amount of power generated increases and reduces constantly. Because of this, wind turbines are regularly grouped collectively in ‘wind farms’ to both maximize output and generate a consistent deliver of energy throughout the day. Chapter 3 Why is Wind Energy Needed? Our source of power needs is changing, and so is the manner we are encountering them. The UK has a legally binding commitment to preserve dramatically reducing its greenhouse gasoline emissions over the coming decades; and strength production is the largest modern-day supply of those emissions. Not best does burning fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases, however fossil fuel reserves are a finite resource and increasingly want to be imported from overseas. The wind, in contrast, is freely available and for ever and ever renewable; and the United Kingdom has extra wind than any country in mainland Europe. As onshore wind technologies have matured, onshore wind has also turn out to be the lowest cost shape of recent large-scale electricity generation within the UK - cheaper than gas and almost half of the rate in keeping with kWh of latest nuclear energy stations. Whilst power performance is growing, modifications consisting of the growth in use of electric vehicles and the increasing use of electricity as a supply of heat also are likely to growth the need for energy into the future. Generating power from the wind now provides, and will retain to provide inside the future, a secure, affordable, renewable and small carbon manner of assembly the UK’s power needs. Wind turbines are less of a risk for climate change as millions of humans can be afflicted by the results of climate trade worldwide. In order to maintain further dangers of weather exchange at bay, growing countries want to decrease their oxygen emission with at the least 80-95 percent earlier than 2050. Climate scientists agree in this fact. In order to reap this, 80-90 percentage of our energy must be generated through using renewable methods by 2050. Now, the global electricity production by means of renewable source is set 10 percent which became 4.6 percentage in 2012. As you could see, the manufacturing of renewable power has positively changed a lot however if we want to alternate this to 80-90 percent by using 2050, we need to invest in renewables proper now because otherwise we aren’t going to get by that percentage. The Global Wind Energy Council calculated that by 2030, 19 percentage of all globally generated electricity may be generated with wind turbines, and by using 2050 that percent might be 25-30. The cost of wind turbines is relatively cheap, Wind generators on land are the most inexpensive shape of renewable electricity. Wind turbines on land best use about 4 cents subsidy according to kWh. For sea wind, that charge is presently 7 cents, however, to rapidly decrease. Nowadays, in places along the coast, turbines can run almost without subsidy. The fossil gasoline enterprise on the alternative hand, gets an outstanding quantity of subsidy. Contamination is extremely expensive. The expenses of infection due to fossil fuels – weather change, air pollutants are actually paid with tax-payers money. Turbine deliver energy cleanly. Those who assume turbines are expensive, typically do now not bear in mind those factors: The air pollution because of electricity generation with fossil fuels, and the fees it brings with it concerning weather change. If your component those expenses into the equation, renewable power can easily compete with fossil energy, wind electricity being the most inexpensive of these methods. Now, the fees for the emission of 1 tone of CO2 is a measly five euros, at the same time as the real charges for the emission is around 67 euros. 13 times as high. Job possibilities: Wind power creates plenty extra job possibilities than strength flora reliant on fossil fuels. The costs of fossil gasoline will keep increasing, as the deliver lessens. The fees of wind turbines will keep falling as they end up less difficult to install, and the demand grows. And unlike with fossil fuels, the wind supply will never run out. We want to put money into wind which will maintain the destiny financial system on most effective renewable strength. If we do no longer make the transition now, destiny generations could have a sizeable problem. As Wind Energy is very popular it provides many people with jobs, according to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, ‘’Wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent jobs that a fossil power plant can! The study was issued by Greenpeace and focused on the Dutch provinces Groningen and Friesland’’. With Wind turbines that are broken, damaged or don’t work they can be recycled and made into new one which is helping our planet as we are not just using metal and wasting it. Because technology develops, new turbines are extra nature-friendly than older models. Modern wind generators may be recycled quite effectively, and leave very little waste, as a variety of the materials may be reused to construct other turbines. The only elements for which this doesn’t apply, are the rotor blades, as they are normally made from fiberglass. They can be recycled, however not for wind turbine parts, and they are frequently used to make bollards. Currently, studies are being executed to see if it can be used for other purposes.

    In-text: (Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Pod-energy.com. 2020. Coriolis Energy   |   Why Do We Need Wind Energy?. [online] Available at: <http://pod-energy.com/wind_energy/wind_index.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis

    2020

    “The plant was approved by the Scottish authorities in January 2010” “The Isle of Lewis Wind Farm Project History” “by Beinn Mhor Power and Crionaig Power, in December 2004”. “The project was permitted, but just 33 turbines were allowed as against the 39 turbines proposed in the revised plan.’’ “LWF and the Baillie wind farm (BWF) close to Thurso have been approved via the government at some stage in the identical week. The BWF will supply electricity to the upgraded Beauly to Denny power transmission line.” ‘’LWF will employ 33 turbines of 3.6MW each. The turbines that will be integrated are of horizontal axis, and of upwind machine.’’ “It will have Loch Seaforth in the north and west and will be surrounded by Loch Sealg in the south-east border.” “Building of reinforced-concrete foundations to install the wind turbines. The buried foundations will be of 22m long, with a breadth of 22m and thickness of 2m. A two-meter high column can also be laid in the middle for the tower”. “Locally sourced material, transport, workers and rented equipment may be used throughout the construction of the power farm for you to offer maximum financial advantage to the Isle”. Lewis Wind Farm (LWF) is the primary large-scale wind strength plant in the Western Isles. can find it at Muaitheabhal in Western Isles, Scotland. The venture is being evolved by Lewis Wind Power LTD. The plant will have 33 wind turbines, and which can create 118MW of energy. They aim to manufacture enough green power to provide energy to around 55,000 homes. “The plant was approved by the Scottish authorities in January 2010”, The John Muir Trust, a panorama conservation charity opposed the development of the farm. The motives for objections consist of visibility of a few generators from the Calanais standing stones. The venture has, however, been continued as extra renewable electricity generating plants are required to produce emission-less power. “The Isle of Lewis Wind Farm Project History” The venture turned into initiated in 2001, out of some of energy issues confronting the UK and Western Isles, the application for the 53-turbine farm was put forward to the Scottish Government, “by Beinn Mhor Power and Crionaig Power, in December 2004”. “The project was permitted, but just 33 turbines were allowed as against the 39 turbines proposed in the revised plan.’’ The Details for the Plant The LWF project which was approved by way of placing a series of conditions including safety of the high-quality herbal surroundings and scenery, enhancement of transportation and minimisation of disturbance to the communities. “LWF and the Baillie wind farm (BWF) close to Thurso have been approved via the government at some stage in the identical week. The BWF will supply electricity to the upgraded Beauly to Denny power transmission line.” ‘’LWF will employ 33 turbines of 3.6MW each. The turbines that will be integrated are of horizontal axis, and of upwind machine.’’ Each turbine will have three glass or carbon fiber reinforced blades. The most height of the turbines is 140m and the rotor diameter is 107m. The wind farm will be constructed in a place of 78km2. “It will have Loch Seaforth in the north and west and will be surrounded by Loch Sealg in the south-east border.” The Construction Phase The Isle of Lewis Wind Farm will be constructed on Eisgein Estate at Muaitheabhal. The construction work involves; “Building of reinforced-concrete foundations to install the wind turbines. The buried foundations will be of 22m long, with a breadth of 22m and thickness of 2m. A two-meter high column can also be laid in the middle for the tower”. The turbines will be hooked up in organizations of nine. A hard-standing area may be built adjacent to the foundations. “Locally sourced material, transport, workers and rented equipment may be used throughout the construction of the power farm for you to offer maximum financial advantage to the Isle”. During the development segment the task will offer 150 creation jobs. Furthermore, it will additionally put forward a few jobs which will not be temporary, as soon as its operational.

    In-text: (The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis. 2020. The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News And Market Analysis. [online] Available at: <https://www.power-technology.com/projects/lewiswind/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis

    2020

    "... Lewis Wind Farm (LWF) is the first large-scale wind power plant in Western Isles. It is located at Muaitheabhal in Western Isles, Scotland. The project is being ... An application to build and run a 53 turbine wind farm was submitted to the Scottish Government, by Beinn Mhor Power and Crionaig Power, in December 2004.... The turbines that will be integrated are of horizontal axis, and of upwind machine. Each turbine will have three glass or carbon fibre reinforced blades.... The project's construction work includes building of reinforced-concrete foundations to install the wind turbines. The buried foundations will be of 22m long, with "

    In-text: (The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Power Technology | Energy News and Market Analysis. 2020. The Lewis Wind Farm Project, United Kingdom - Power Technology | Energy News And Market Analysis. [online] Available at: <https://www.power-technology.com/projects/lewiswind/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

     By: Yesmil, Alorfy, Darwin & Jomar..  An organic material made from plants and animals.  Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. - ppt download

    2020

    "... Energy can be extracted from wastes. Biomass energy can be used in similar ways to fossil fuels. Sources of biomass are readily available worldwide."

    In-text: ( By: Yesmil, Alorfy, Darwin & Jomar..  An organic material made from plants and animals.  Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. - ppt download, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Slideplayer.com. 2020.  By: Yesmil, Alorfy, Darwin & Jomar..  An Organic Material Made From Plants And Animals.  Biomass Contains Stored Energy From The Sun. - Ppt Download. [online] Available at: <https://slideplayer.com/slide/5748284/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    "... Heating or Domestic Hot Water system 4. The liquid refrigerant passes back through the expansion valve, reducing its pressure ready to start the cycle again."

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: Standbyme.daikin.ie. 2020. [online] Available at: <https://standbyme.daikin.ie/en/faq/technical-terminology> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Big business can work alongside government – just look at the success of clean energy

    2020

    "... The RO rewards renewable output over the lifetime of a project. Then there is the Feed-in Tariff (FiT). It is designed to support small scale "

    In-text: (Big business can work alongside government – just look at the success of clean energy, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: The Independent. 2020. Big Business Can Work Alongside Government – Just Look At The Success Of Clean Energy. [online] Available at: <https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/carillion-collapse-government-contracts-private-sector-public-clean-energy-solar-wind-a8164116.html> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Wind Power Generation in the UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018

    2020

    Wind energy technology has grown a large amount in the past decade and the UK is now the sixth largest wind strength producer inside the international after China, the USA, Germany, India and Spain. In 2017, 15% of The United Kingdom’s entire electricity became generated from wind energy, enough to power 12.7 million homes across the USA. This makes wind our number one source of renewable energy in Britain at the existing time. In fact, we now generate twice as much power from wind electricity as we do from coal which is brilliant for the future of the country and our planet. How Is Wind Energy Generated? Wind energy sincerely begins with the sun and is largely a shape of solar electricity. The solar heats the floor of the earth unevenly because of the earth’s irregular surfaces of mountains, hills, oceans and different terrain. This choppy heating of the earth creates regions of hot air that rises and cold air that sinks and moves into its place. This motion of air and change in air pressure causes wind to form. The winds natural power can then be turned into electricity using wind turbines that are grouped collectively in wind farms, each in land and stale the coast of the UK. Wind Turbines To flip the winds energy into energy it requires using wind generators placed in windy areas of open land or in shallow water surrounding the coast of the UK. Wind generators are huge structures, generally around 150 meters tall, crowded with two or three rotating blades. The winds strength and kinetic electricity motive the blades spin in clockwise which powers a generator that converts the movement into energy. Wind Turbine blades generally span twenty to eighty meters and flip thirteen to twenty instances in a line with a minute depending on the electricity of the wind, the dimensions and kind of turbine. There are currently 8,435 onshore turbines in operation throughout the United Kingdom plus a similarly 1,832 positioned offshore. This amounts to a complete maximum potential of over 19,800 megawatts of power and equated to 15% of Britain's total electricity generation in 2017. This swelled in addition in the final 3 months of 2017 when a total of 18.5% of our total power became generated by means of wind power. These numbers are still underneath most different fossil gas energies however are increasing all the time as our technology advances and new wind farms pop up throughout the country. In the UK, our tallest wind turbines are located off the coast of Liverpool at the Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Standing at 195 meters, they're taller than the Blackpool Tower and the Gherkin skyscraper in London. With eighty-meter-long blades, each turbine has a potential of 8 megawatts which is enough to power a home for 29 hours with simply an unmarried rotation. As the wind is variable at some stage in the day, so is the quantity of instances the blades flip meaning the amount of power generated increases and reduces constantly. Because of this, wind turbines are regularly grouped collectively in ‘wind farms’ to both maximize output and generate a consistent deliver of energy throughout the day. Chapter 3 Why is Wind Energy Needed? Our source of power needs is changing, and so is the manner we are encountering them. The UK has a legally binding commitment to preserve dramatically reducing its greenhouse gasoline emissions over the coming decades; and strength production is the largest modern-day supply of those emissions. Not best does burning fossil fuels emit greenhouse gases, however fossil fuel reserves are a finite resource and increasingly want to be imported from overseas. The wind, in contrast, is freely available and for ever and ever renewable; and the United Kingdom has extra wind than any country in mainland Europe. As onshore wind technologies have matured, onshore wind has also turn out to be the lowest cost shape of recent large-scale electricity generation within the UK - cheaper than gas and almost half of the rate in keeping with kWh of latest nuclear energy stations. Whilst power performance is growing, modifications consisting of the growth in use of electric vehicles and the increasing use of electricity as a supply of heat also are likely to growth the need for energy into the future. Generating power from the wind now provides, and will retain to provide inside the future, a secure, affordable, renewable and small carbon manner of assembly the UK’s power needs. Wind turbines are less of a risk for climate change as millions of humans can be afflicted by the results of climate trade worldwide. In order to maintain further dangers of weather exchange at bay, growing countries want to decrease their oxygen emission with at the least 80-95 percent earlier than 2050. Climate scientists agree in this fact. In order to reap this, 80-90 percentage of our energy must be generated through using renewable methods by 2050. Now, the global electricity production by means of renewable source is set 10 percent which became 4.6 percentage in 2012. As you could see, the manufacturing of renewable power has positively changed a lot however if we want to alternate this to 80-90 percent by using 2050, we need to invest in renewables proper now because otherwise we aren’t going to get by that percentage. The Global Wind Energy Council calculated that by 2030, 19 percentage of all globally generated electricity may be generated with wind turbines, and by using 2050 that percent might be 25-30. The cost of wind turbines is relatively cheap, Wind generators on land are the most inexpensive shape of renewable electricity. Wind turbines on land best use about 4 cents subsidy according to kWh. For sea wind, that charge is presently 7 cents, however, to rapidly decrease. Nowadays, in places along the coast, turbines can run almost without subsidy. The fossil gasoline enterprise on the alternative hand, gets an outstanding quantity of subsidy. Contamination is extremely expensive. The expenses of infection due to fossil fuels – weather change, air pollutants are actually paid with tax-payers money. Turbine deliver energy cleanly. Those who assume turbines are expensive, typically do now not bear in mind those factors: The air pollution because of electricity generation with fossil fuels, and the fees it brings with it concerning weather change. If your component those expenses into the equation, renewable power can easily compete with fossil energy, wind electricity being the most inexpensive of these methods. Now, the fees for the emission of 1 tone of CO2 is a measly five euros, at the same time as the real charges for the emission is around 67 euros. 13 times as high. Job possibilities: Wind power creates plenty extra job possibilities than strength flora reliant on fossil fuels. The costs of fossil gasoline will keep increasing, as the deliver lessens. The fees of wind turbines will keep falling as they end up less difficult to install, and the demand grows. And unlike with fossil fuels, the wind supply will never run out. We want to put money into wind which will maintain the destiny financial system on most effective renewable strength. If we do no longer make the transition now, destiny generations could have a sizeable problem. As Wind Energy is very popular it provides many people with jobs, according to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, ‘’Wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent jobs that a fossil power plant can! The study was issued by Greenpeace and focused on the Dutch provinces Groningen and Friesland’’. With Wind turbines that are broken, damaged or don’t work they can be recycled and made into new one which is helping our planet as we are not just using metal and wasting it. Because technology develops, new turbines are extra nature-friendly than older models. Modern wind generators may be recycled quite effectively, and leave very little waste, as a variety of the materials may be reused to construct other turbines. The only elements for which this doesn’t apply, are the rotor blades, as they are normally made from fiberglass. They can be recycled, however not for wind turbine parts, and they are frequently used to make bollards. Currently, studies are being executed to see if it can be used for other purposes.

    In-text: (Wind Power Generation in the UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: The Switch. 2020. Wind Power Generation In The UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018. [online] Available at: <https://theswitch.co.uk/energy/guides/renewables/wind-power> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Wind Power Generation in the UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018

    2020

    "... The sun heats the surface of the earth unevenly because of the earth's irregular surfaces of mountains, hills, oceans and other terrain. This uneven ... In the UK, our tallest wind turbines are located off the coast of Liverpool at the Burbo Bank Offshore Wind Farm. Standing at 195 metres, they are "

    In-text: (Wind Power Generation in the UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: The Switch. 2020. Wind Power Generation In The UK: The Ultimate Guide 2018. [online] Available at: <https://theswitch.co.uk/energy/guides/renewables/wind-power> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Anon

    2020

    "The RO rewards renewable output over the lifetime of a project. - The Feed-in Tariff (FiT) is designed to support small scale renewable installations up to 5MW."

    In-text: (2020)

    Your Bibliography: Unctad.org. 2020. [online] Available at: <https://unctad.org/meetings/en/Presentation/CSTD_2018_IPanel_T1_RenewableEnergy_s08_UK_en.pdf> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

  • Website

    Contact | WES, Wind Energy Solutions

    2020

    "According to a study made by consultancy bureau Ecofys, wind energy, both on land and in sea, provides ten times the amount of permanent "

    In-text: (Contact | WES, Wind Energy Solutions, 2020)

    Your Bibliography: Windenergysolutions.nl. 2020. Contact | WES, Wind Energy Solutions. [online] Available at: <https://windenergysolutions.nl/contact/> [Accessed 15 January 2020].

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