These are the sources and citations used to research EEG4DissertationProposal2Go. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on
"Cognitive accounts of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) assert that core beliefs are crucial to the development, maintenance, and treatment of the disorder. There are a number of obsessive beliefs that are considered fundamental to OCD, including personal responsibility, threat estimation, perfectionism, need for certainty, importance of thoughts, and thought control. The present study investigated if pretreatment severity of obsessive beliefs, as well as the change in obsessive beliefs following treatment, predicted intensive, residential cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment outcome. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were carried out to investigate the relations between obsessive beliefs and treatment outcome. Results indicated that inflated pretreatment responsibility/threat estimation beliefs were significantly related to less overall obsessive compulsive (OC) symptom reduction at discharge, explaining 2% of the overall variance. Changes in obsessive beliefs broadly, and importance/control of thoughts specifically, were positively related to overall OC symptom reduction at discharge, respectively explaining 18% and 3.6% variance. Results are modestly consistent with a number of theoretical models, which argue that inflated responsibility, threat estimation, and thought control are important to the maintenance and treatment of OCD."
In-text: (Adams, Riemann, Wetterneck and Cisler, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Adams, T., Riemann, B., Wetterneck, C. and Cisler, J., 2012. Obsessive Beliefs Predict Cognitive Behavior Therapy Outcome for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41(3), pp.203-211.
Abstract—Wearable sensors enable long term continuous psychological monitoring, which is important for the treatment and management of many chronic illnesses, such as neurological disorders and mental health issues. Examples include diabetes, problems with socials skills to some extent, empathy, communication, depression, drug addiction, and anxiety disorders. In the current paper we present a few mobile health technologies developed by our group and shall also discuss future market trends and opportunities for wearable sensor technology. Technologies presented include wearable sensors for electro-dermal activity (EDA), mobile plethysmography and the supporting wireless network architecture. The companies that are recently in the market and are putting great emphasis on wearable sensors are gradually changing the level of technology to a significant high level. Index Terms—Wearable sensors, electro foxy, cute circuit, Tn games, electro dermal activity, mobile plethysymography.
In-text: (Ahmad Usmani and Umar Usmani, 2014)
Your Bibliography: Ahmad Usmani, U. and Umar Usmani, M., 2014. Future Market Trends and Opportunities for Wearable Sensor Technology. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, pp.326-330.
"The digital world, and the Internet in particular, have a significant impact on almost all aspects of our lives. The realm of psychotherapy is an area in which the influence of the Internet is growing rapidly. This paper suggests a model for comprehensive online therapy online with a therapist at its center. We start by explaining the main components of both traditional therapy and online therapy. We discuss the prin- cipal criticisms leveled against online therapy and assess the efficacy of various responses. The paper moves on to explain the advantages of online therapy, focusing on the unique aspects of this approach. The paper proposes that online therapy should exploit other online resources, including online tech- niques for information gathering. This is true both in the therapeutic session and outside of it. In addition, the paper suggests that therapists incorporate online role play, online CBT and intervention techniques using the smartphone. All of these tools are suggested as important components in a process of compre- hensive therapy run by a therapist working online."
In-text: (Amichai-Hamburger et al., 2014)
Your Bibliography: Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Klomek, A., Friedman, D., Zuckerman, O. and Shani-Sherman, T., 2014. The future of online therapy. Computers in Human Behavior, 41, pp.288-294.
"It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz), beta 1 (13–20 Hz), beta 2 (20–30 Hz), and gamma (30–40 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight > normal-weight > overweight/obese (p < 0.004), whereas occipital alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern normal-weight > underweight > overweight/obese (p < 0.00003). Furthermore, amplitude of the parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 sources was stronger in the normal-weight subjects than in the underweight and overweight/obese subjects (p < 0.0007). These results suggest that abnormal weight in healthy overweight/obese subjects is related to abnormal cortical neural synchronization at the basis of resting state alpha rhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal."
In-text: (Babiloni et al., 2011)
Your Bibliography: Babiloni, C., Marzano, N., Lizio, R., Valenzano, A., Triggiani, A., Petito, A., Bellomo, A., Lecce, B., Mundi, C., Soricelli, A., Limatola, C., Cibelli, G. and Del Percio, C., 2011. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight. NeuroImage, 58(2), pp.698-707.
"Abstract The lifetime prevalence of eating disorders and pathologic gambling was assessed in first-degree relatives of subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and well controls. There were no significant differences between the groups. The authors conclude that eating disorder and pathologic gambling have no familial relationship to OCD. Address reprint requests to Donald W. Black, M.D., Psychiatry Administration, University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, 200 Hawkins Dr, #2887 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242-1057. Copyright © 1994 Published by Elsevier Inc."
In-text: (Black, Goldstein, Noyes and Blum, 1994)
Your Bibliography: Black, D., Goldstein, R., Noyes, R. and Blum, N., 1994. Compulsive behaviors and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Lack of a relationship between OCD, eating disorders, and gambling. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35(2), pp.145-148.
In-text: (BOSCHERT, 2012)
Your Bibliography: BOSCHERT, S., 2012. Attention Retraining Enhanced CBT for Anxiety. Family Practice News, 42(20), p.48.
"The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders in an open trial for adults with the full range of eating disorders found in the community. The only previously published trial of CBT-E for eating disorders was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) conducted in the U.K. for patients with a BMI ≥ 17.5. The current study represents the first published trial of CBT-E to include patients with a BMI < 17.5. The study involved 125 patients referred to a public outpatient clinic in Perth, Western Australia. Patients attended, on average, 20–40 individual sessions with a clinical psychologist. Of those who entered the trial, 53% completed treatment. Longer waiting time for treatment was significantly associated with drop out. By the end of treatment full remission (cessation of all key eating disorder behaviours, BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2, not meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder) or partial remission (meeting at least 2 these criteria) was achieved by two thirds of the patients who completed treatment and 40% of the total sample. The results compared favourably to those reported in the previous RCT of CBT-E, with one exception being the higher drop-out rate in the current study. Overall, the findings indicated that CBT-E results in significant improvements, in both eating and more general psychopathology, in patients with all eating disorders attending an outpatient clinic."
In-text: (Byrne, Fursland, Allen and Watson, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Byrne, S., Fursland, A., Allen, K. and Watson, H., 2011. The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: An open trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(4), pp.219-226.
In-text: (Carnell et al., 2014)
Your Bibliography: Carnell, S., Benson, L., Pantazatos, S., Hirsch, J. and Geliebter, A., 2014. Amodal brain activation and functional connectivity in response to high-energy-density food cues in obesity. Obesity, 22(11), pp.2370-2378.
"In recent years there has been widespread acceptance that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for bulimia nervosa. The cognitive behavioral treatment of bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) was first described in 1981. Over the past decades the theory and treatment have evolved in response to a variety of challenges. The treatment has been adapted to make it suitable for all forms of eating disorder—thereby making it “transdiagnostic” in its scope— and treatment procedures have been refined to improve outcome. The new version of the treatment, termed enhanced CBT (CBT-E) also addresses psychopathological processes “external” to the eating disorder, which, in certain subgroups of patients, interact with the disorder itself. In this paper we discuss how the development of this broader theory and treatment arose from focusing on those patients who did not respond well to earlier versions of the treatment."
In-text: (Cooper and Fairburn, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Cooper, Z. and Fairburn, C., 2011. The Evolution of “Enhanced” Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Eating Disorders: Learning From Treatment Nonresponse. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18(3), pp.394-402.
"A subgroup of eating-disordered patients have particular difficulty in tolerating negative mood states and existing interventions seem to be less effective when working with such cases. This clinical practice paper outlines a Cognitive–Emotional–Behavioural Therapy (CEBT). This intervention is aimed at enabling patients to challenge the basis of their emotional distress, and thus to reduce the need for the function of the associated eating behaviours. The intervention draws on range of models and techniques, including cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, mindfulness training and experiential exercises. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association."
In-text: (Corstorphine, 2006)
Your Bibliography: Corstorphine, E., 2006. Cognitive–Emotional–Behavioural Therapy for the eating disorders: working with beliefs about emotions. European Eating Disorders Review, 14(6), pp.448-461.
In-text: (Courbasson, Nishikawa and Shapira, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Courbasson, C., Nishikawa, Y. and Shapira, L., 2010. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. Eating Disorders, 19(1), pp.17-33.
"THESE data, together with some interpretations of them, come from an on-going study of 82 patients with primary anorexia nervosa and a pilot study of 16 patients with massive obesity. The anorexia nervosa patients-G male and 76 female-have all been seen at length by myself, and the majority have been treated as in-patients. Many of them have been referred to in previous reports [l-5]. In particular the view has been expressed that many patients with anorexia nervosa come from an obese or otherwise nutritionally disordered population so far as family and personal constitutional factors are concerned. Not all patients with anorexia nervosa develop this illness in their teens. The majority of the remainder in the present series have been women who developed the illness in their twenties, often having first become more obese during their teens."
In-text: (Crisp, 1967)
Your Bibliography: Crisp, A., 1967. The possible significance of some behavioural correlates of weight and carbohydrate intake. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11(1), pp.117-IN3.
In-text: (Curry, Ludman and McClure, 2003)
Your Bibliography: Curry, S., Ludman, E. and McClure, J., 2003. Self-administered treatment for smoking cessation. J. Clin. Psychol., 59(3), pp.305-319.
"Abstract Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine decision making in female patients with binge eating disorder (BED) in comparison with obese and normal weight women. Method In the study, 20 patients with BED, 21 obese women without BED and 34 healthy women participated. Decision making was assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Several questionnaires were administered measuring binge eating severity, sensitivity for punishment and reward, and self-control. Results The findings indicated that the BED and obese group performed poorly on the IGT. Participants who have BED and are obese did not improve their choice behaviour over time, whereas participants with normal weight showed a learning effect. An association between IGT performance and binge eating severity was found. Conclusion This study demonstrates that patients with BED display decision-making deficits on the IGT comparable with other forms of disordered eating. Future research should focus on unravelling the processes underlying the deficits. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association."
In-text: (Danner et al., 2011)
Your Bibliography: Danner, U., Ouwehand, C., Haastert, N., Hornsveld, H. and Ridder, D., 2011. Decision-making Impairments in Women with Binge Eating Disorder in Comparison with Obese and Normal Weight Women. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(1), pp.e56-e62.
"More intense forms of enhanced cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT-E) may be necessary for patients who do not benefit from outpatient CBT-E. A novel application of the transdiagnostic approach for eating disorders (ED) was implemented. A mixed sample of 62 patients, 13 anorexia nervosa (AN) (21%); 29 bulimia nervosa (BN) (47%) and 20 eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (32%) were admitted to a CBT-E day treatment. Forty-seven patients (75.8%) completed the treatment as defined by completing two-thirds of treatment and the discharge assessment. A total of 31.9% (15/47) achieved recovery as defined by post-treatment body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and global Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) +1 SD above community mean. An increase of 1.2 BMI units (15.8–17.0, p < .02) was observed for very underweight patients (BMI < 17.5). Patients with BN showed significantly greater improvement than AN or EDNOS for ED symptomology, state anxiety and self-esteem. Findings demonstrated high treatment acceptability of the CBT-E day treatment programme and significant, yet differential, improvement across diagnostic groups."
In-text: (Garte et al., 2014)
Your Bibliography: Garte, M., Hagen, B., Reas, D., Isdahl, P., Hinderaker, E. and Rø, Ø., 2014. Implementation of a day hospital treatment programme based on CBT-E for severe eating disorders in adults: an open trial. Advances in Eating Disorders, 3(1), pp.48-62.
In-text: (Ge et al., 2013)
Your Bibliography: Ge, Z., Liu, R., Lu, R., Lin, C., Zhang, R. and Pan, Z., 2013. A Portable Mind Wave Monitor Headband Applied in Intellectual Disabled Children. AMM, 336-338, pp.1563-1569.
In-text: (Geller, Brown and Srikameswaran, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Geller, J., Brown, K. and Srikameswaran, S., 2010. The efficacy of a brief motivational intervention for individuals with eating disorders: A randomized control trial. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44(6), pp.497-505.
In-text: (Griffiths, Mond, Murray and Touyz, 2014)
Your Bibliography: Griffiths, S., Mond, J., Murray, S. and Touyz, S., 2014. The prevalence and adverse associations of stigmatization in people with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, p.n/a-n/a.
"Cognitive and behavioural responses to food reward, such as attentional biases and overeating, have been associated with individual differences in reward-responsiveness and impulsivity. This study investigated relationships between external eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues, assessed using the pictorial visual-probe task. As previously reported, attentional bias correlated positively with external eating. Additional novel findings were: (i) attentional bias for food cues was positively related to trait impulsivity, (ii) attentional bias remained related to attention impulsivity after controlling for external eating. Our findings highlight the relationship between the ability to control impulsive responding and selective attention to food cues."
In-text: (Hou et al., 2011)
Your Bibliography: Hou, R., Mogg, K., Bradley, B., Moss-Morris, R., Peveler, R. and Roefs, A., 2011. External eating, impulsivity and attentional bias to food cues. Appetite, 56(2), pp.424-427.
"Of the 108 patients, 86 (80%) completed treatments. Remission rates (zero binges for 28 days) for completers were: 29% (fluoxetine), 30% (placebo), 55% (CBT+fluoxetine), and 73% (CBT+placebo). Intent-to-treat (ITT) remission rates were: 22% (fluoxetine), 26% (placebo), 50% (CBT+fluoxetine), and 61% (CBT+placebo). Completer and ITT analyses on remission and dimensional measures of binge eating, cognitive features, and psychological distress produced consistent findings. Fluoxetine was not superior to placebo, CBT+fluoxetine and CBT+placebo did not differ, and both CBT conditions were superior to fluoxetine and to placebo. Weight loss was modest, did not differ across treatments, but was associated with binge eating remission. Conclusions CBT, but not fluoxetine, demonstrated efficacy for the behavioral and psychological features of BED, but not obesity."
In-text: (Topiramate with cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) appears to be more beneficial than CBT alone for weight loss in binge-eating disorder, 2007)
Your Bibliography: Inpharma Weekly, 2007. Topiramate with cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) appears to be more beneficial than CBT alone for weight loss in binge-eating disorder,. &NA;(1616), p.18.
"The acute central nervous system effects of relaxation techniques (RT) have not been systematically studied. We conducted a controlled, randomized study of the central nervous system effects of RT using spectral analysis of EEG activity. Thirty-six subjects were randomized to either RT or a music comparison condition. After listening to an RT audiotape or music audiotapes daily for 6 weeks, the acute central nervous system effects of RT and music were measured using power spectral analysis of alpha and theta EEG activity in all cortical regions. RT produced significantly greater increases in theta activity in multiple cortical regions compared to the music condition. These findings are consistent with widespread reductions in cortical arousal during RT. They extend previous findings and suggest that theta, and not alpha, EEG may be the most reliable marker of the central nervous system effects of RT. These findings demonstrate that RT produce greater reductions in central nervous system activity than a credible comparison condition. The findings suggest that RT represent a hypoactive central nervous system state that may be similar to Stage 1 sleep and that RT may exert their therapeutic effects, in part, through cerebral energy conservation/restoration."
In-text: (Jacobs and Friedman, 2004)
Your Bibliography: Jacobs, G. and Friedman, R., 2004. EEG Spectral Analysis of Relaxation Techniques. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 29(4), pp.245-254.
In-text: (Kent and Stewart, 2000)
Your Bibliography: Kent, S. and Stewart, R., 2000. Evolutionary Algorithms: A Tool for Addressing Problems which Humans Cannot Solve. Cognition, Technology & Work, 2(1), pp.35-49.
In-text: (Kuo, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Kuo, A., 2011. Opportunities and Challenges of Cloud Computing to Improve Health Care Services. J Med Internet Res, 13(3), p.e67.
"Although researchers have examined the efficacy of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, few studies have explored the association between trait mindfulness and eating pathology. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to examine the unique associations between multiple facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, describing, and observing) and eating pathology. Undergraduate women (N = 276) completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that four mindfulness facets (awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, and describing) were uniquely associated with eating pathology above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. Results are discussed with regard to the potential role of various facets of trait mindfulness in eating pathology as well as the possible utility of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders."
In-text: (Lavender, Gratz and Tull, 2011)
Your Bibliography: Lavender, J., Gratz, K. and Tull, M., 2011. Exploring the Relationship between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology in Women. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40(3), pp.174-182.
"Eighteen children with ADD/ADHD, some of whom were also LD, ranging in ages from 5 through 15 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The experimental condition consisted of 40 45-minute sessions of training in enhancing beta activity and suppressing theta activity, spaced over 6 months. The control condition, waiting list group, received no EEG biofeedback. No other psychological treatment or medication was administered to any subjects. All subjects were measured at pretreatment and at posttreatment on an IQ test and parent behavior rating scales for inattention, hyperactivity, and aggressive/defiant (oppositional) behaviors. At posttreatment the experimental group demonstrated a significant increase (mean of 9 points) on the K-Bit IQ Composite as compared to the control group (p<.05). The experimental group also significantly reduced inattentive behaviors as rated by parents (p<.05). The significant improvements in intellectual functioning and attentive behaviors might be explained as a result of the attentional enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback training. Further research utilizing improved data collection and analysis, more stringent control groups, and larger sample sizes are needed to support and replicate these findings."
In-text: (Linden, Habib and Radojevic, 1996)
Your Bibliography: Linden, M., Habib, T. and Radojevic, V., 1996. A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 21(3), pp.297-297.
"Although previous studies have shown that socially anxious individuals exhibit greater relative right frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity at rest, no studies have investigated whether improvements in symptoms as a result of treatment are associated with concomitant changes in resting brain activity. Regional EEG activity was measured at rest in 23 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results indicated that patients shifted significantly from greater relative right to greater relative left resting frontal brain activity from pre- to posttreatment. Greater left frontal EEG activity at pretreatment predicted greater reduction in social anxiety from pre- to posttreatment and lower posttreatment social anxiety after accounting for pretreatment symptoms. These relations were specific to the frontal alpha EEG asymmetry metric. These preliminary findings suggest that resting frontal EEG asymmetry may be a predictor of symptom change and endstate functioning in SAD patients who undergo efficacious psychological treatment."
In-text: (Moscovitch et al., 2011)
Your Bibliography: Moscovitch, D., Santesso, D., Miskovic, V., McCabe, R., Antony, M. and Schmidt, L., 2011. Frontal EEG asymmetry and symptom response to cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychology, 87(3), pp.379-385.
"Starting from an addiction model of obesity, the present study examined differences in attention for food-related stimuli and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight women under conditions of hunger and satiety. Twenty-six overweight/obese (BMI: 30.00 ± 4.62) and 40 normal-weight (BMI: 20.63 ± 1.14) females were randomly assigned to a condition of hunger or satiety. Three indexes of attention were employed, all including pictures of food items: an eye-tracking paradigm (gaze direction and duration), a visual probe task (reaction times), and a recording of electrophysiological brain activity (amplitude of the P300 event-related potential). In addition, the acute food intake of participants was assessed using a bogus taste task. In general, an attentional bias towards food pictures was found in all participants. No differences between groups or conditions were observed in the eye-tracking data. The visual probe task revealed an enhanced automatic orientation towards food cues in hungry versus satiated, and in overweight/obese versus normal-weight individuals, but no differences between groups or conditions in maintained attention. The P300 amplitude showed that only in normal-weight participants the intentional allocation of attention to food pictures was enhanced in hunger versus satiety. In hungry overweight/obese participants, the P300 bias for food pictures was not clearly present, although an increased food intake was observed especially in this group. In conclusion, various attention-related tasks yielded various results, suggesting that they measure different underlying processes. Strikingly, overweight/obese individuals appear to automatically direct their attention to food-related stimuli, to a greater extent than normal-weight individuals, particularly when food-deprived. Speculatively, hungry overweight/obese individuals also appear to use cognitive strategies to reduce a maintained attentional bias for food stimuli, perhaps in an attempt to prevent disinhibited food intake. However, in order to draw firm conclusions, replication studies are needed."
In-text: (Nijs, Muris, Euser and Franken, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Nijs, I., Muris, P., Euser, A. and Franken, I., 2010. Differences in attention to food and food intake between overweight/obese and normal-weight females under conditions of hunger and satiety. Appetite, 54(2), pp.243-254.
"Dietary restraint is heavily influenced by affect, which has been independently related to asymmetrical activation in the prefrontal cortex (prefrontal asymmetry) in electroencephalograph (EEG) studies. In normal weight individuals, dietary restraint has been related to prefrontal asymmetry; however, this relationship was not mediated by affect. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that, in an overweight and obese sample, dietary restraint as well as binge eating, disinhibition, hunger, and appetitive responsivity would be related to prefrontal asymmetry independent of affect at the time of assessment. Resting EEG recordings and self-report measures of overeating and affect were collected in 28 overweight and obese adults. Linear regression analyses were used to predict prefrontal asymmetry from appetitive measures while controlling for affect. Cognitive restraint and binge eating were not associated with prefrontal asymmetry. However, disinhibition, hunger, and appetitive responsivity predicted left-, greater than right-, sided prefrontal cortex activation independent of affect. Findings in this study add to a growing literature implicating the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive control of dietary intake. Further research to specify the precise role of prefrontal asymmetry in the motivation toward, and cessation of, feeding in obese individuals is encouraged."
In-text: (Ochner et al., 2009)
Your Bibliography: Ochner, C., Green, D., van Steenburgh, J., Kounios, J. and Lowe, M., 2009. Asymmetric prefrontal cortex activation in relation to markers of overeating in obese humans. Appetite, 53(1), pp.44-49.
"There is inconsistency in how we operationalise dropout in clinical research, with studies defining it based on time, number of sessions, therapeutic goals, an identified 'end' of therapy, or the therapist's judgement. The effect of different definitions is poorly understood, but meta-analyses have indicated that they may produce varying rates of dropout and relate to heterogenous client groups. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different definitions of dropout on associated rates, predictors and outcomes in one sample. Analysis involved data from 249 clients (97% female) who received individual outpatient CBT-E. Each participant was classified as a completer or non-completer according to four definitions: before 30 days (10%), before 10 sessions (26%), before prescribed sessions (56%), and non-mutual termination (40%). Analyses indicated that dropout classifications were significantly associated but had poor to moderate agreement. Three definitions were associated with at least one predictor variable and significant variables changed across definitions. Therapeutic outcome was only associated with therapist-judged dropout. Results indicate that inconsistent definitions may prevent accurate interpretation of the dropout literature, and may impede efforts to increase treatment completion. Therapist-judged dropout appeared to be the most useful definition, and we recommend it be the standard definition of dropout."
In-text: (Pannekoek, Byrne and Fursland, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Pannekoek, L., Byrne, S. and Fursland, A., 2013. Definition of dropout affect rates, predictors and outcomes: evidence from outpatient CBT-E. J Eat Disord, 1(Suppl 1), p.O71.
"The mediating influence of self-esteem on disinhibited eating was assessed in restrained and unre- strained subjects. Self-esteem was unrelated to the eating behavior of unrestrained subjects following a preload, but did moderate the disinhibitory effects of a preload on restrained subjects. Specifically, only those restrained subjects with low self-esteem displayed disinhibited eating after a preload. Theoretical and practical implications of this finding were discussed."
In-text: (Polivy, Heatherton and Herman, 1988)
Your Bibliography: Polivy, J., Heatherton, T. and Herman, C., 1988. Self-esteem, restraint, and eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), pp.354-356.
"The increasing prevalence of both obesity and dementia is a significant public health concern, especially as recent research demonstrates a significant relationship between these conditions. However, while there is evidence of an obesity–dementia relationship, the effect of obesity on cognitive function in adults, independent of obesity related comorbidities, remains ambiguous. Furthermore, research is yet to systematically compare evidence for domain specific cognitive deficits in obese adults. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess evidence for domain specific cognitive deficits in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) adults (18–65 years of age) and whether these studies have been able to determine an independent relationship between obesity and cognition over and above relevant comorbidities. Seventeen articles were identified. The literature revealed impairments in obese adults across almost all cognitive domains investigated (e.g. complex attention, verbal and visual memory, decision making). However, numerous methodological limitations were identified which need to be considered in interpretations and conclusions regarding an independent effect. While cognitive impairments in obese adults are evident, as a result of these methodological limitations there is currently insufficient evidence to indicate a reliable and valid independent association between obesity and cognitive impairment in mid-life adults. Further research addressing key methodological limitations (e.g. application of relevant exclusions and control variables, use of appropriate comparison groups and measures) is recommended in order to improve understanding of the relationship between mid-life obesity and cognition. Such research will inform the development of appropriate approaches to identification, prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in obese adults."
In-text: (Prickett, Brennan and Stolwyk, 2014)
Your Bibliography: Prickett, C., Brennan, L. and Stolwyk, R., 2014. Examining the relationship between obesity and cognitive function: A systematic literature review. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice,.
"CBT guided self-help (CBTgsh) can produce treatment outcomes comparable to therapist-administered CBT (CBTta) for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The efficacy of CBTgsh compared to gold standard CBTta, however, remains to be examined. The current article addresses this issue, as well as how CBTgsh may have unique benefits over CBTta. It further highlights ways in which CBTgsh may be used for disorders of increasing severity, using eating disorders and personality pathology for illustrative purposes. A literature review of PsycINFO, PsyARTICLES, and PubMED was conducted to identify relevant studies published since 1990. Studies directly comparing CBTgsh to gold standard CBTta for anxiety and depression, as well as bulimia nervosa, revealed no significant differences between the two interventions. Furthermore, CBTgsh may have unique benefits by encouraging continued improvement over time. Innovative eating disorder studies also show that CBTgsh can be used for more severe disorders as a supplementary treatment, and produces treatment outcomes superior to CBTta or treatment as usual alone. Based on these findings, CBTgsh applications to personality pathology are suggested. Traditional stepped care models, as they pertain to CBTgsh, may gain to be broadened both in their focus and methods of delivery."
In-text: (Priemer and Talbot, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Priemer, M. and Talbot, F., 2013. CBT Guided Self-Help Compares Favourably to Gold Standard Therapist-Administered CBT and Shows Unique Benefits Over Traditional Treatment. Behaviour Change, 30(04), pp.227-240.
In-text: (15 – Dietary under-reporting by overweight and obese adolescents: results from the HELENA Study, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Public Health Nutrition, 2012. 15 – Dietary under-reporting by overweight and obese adolescents: results from the HELENA Study. 15(8A), p.1555.
In-text: (Sazonov and Schuckers, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Sazonov, E. and Schuckers, S., 2010. The Energetics of Obesity: A Review: Monitoring Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure in Humans. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag., 29(1), pp.31-35.
In-text: (Sevincer and Konuk, 2013)
Your Bibliography: Sevincer, G. and Konuk, N., 2013. EMOTIONAL EATING. JMOOD, p.1.
"Electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback has been employed in substance use disorder (SUD) over the last three decades. The SUD is a complex series of disorders with frequent comorbidities and EEG abnormalities of several types. EEG biofeedback has been employed in conjunction with other therapies and may be useful in enhancing certain outcomes of therapy. Based on published clinical studies and employing efficacy criteria adapted by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research, alpha theta training—either alone for alcoholism or in combination with beta training for stimulant and mixed substance abuse and combined with residential treatment programs, is probably efficacious. Considerations of further research design taking these factors into account are discussed and descriptions of contemporary research are given."
In-text: (Sokhadze, Cannon and Trudeau, 2008)
Your Bibliography: Sokhadze, T., Cannon, R. and Trudeau, D., 2008. EEG Biofeedback as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: Review, Rating of Efficacy, and Recommendations for Further Research. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33(1), pp.1-28.
"Even though eating is frequently driven by overindulgence and reward rather than by energy balance, few studies so far have analyzed decision-making processes and disturbances in feedback processing in women with binge eating disorder (BED). In an experimental study, 17 women with BED (DSM-IV) and 18 overweight healthy controls (HC) were compared in the game of dice task (GDT). This task assesses decision-making under risk with explicit rules for gains and losses. Additionally, differences in dispositional activation of the behavior inhibition and behavior approach system as well as cognitive flexibility were measured. Main results revealed that women with BED make risky decisions significantly more often than HC. Moreover, they show impaired capacities to advantageously utilize feedback processing. Even though these deficits were not related to disease-specific variables, they may be important for the daily decision-making behavior of women with BED, thus being relevant as a maintenance factor for the disorder."
In-text: (Svaldi, Brand and Tuschen-Caffier, 2010)
Your Bibliography: Svaldi, J., Brand, M. and Tuschen-Caffier, B., 2010. Decision-making impairments in women with binge eating disorder. Appetite, 54(1), pp.84-92.
"Cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBTp) was always going to be controversial, given the backwash in the US from the failure of psychoanalysis, the influence of biological psychiatry and neuroscience, and the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Talking therapies will attract criticism in spite of the evidence for their efficacy, a consistent albeit small effect. The evidence is summarized in the paper by Thase et al , but a number of points are worth making. There is considerable heterogeneity in the CBTp studies, in the nature of the treatment and in the populations recruited, which may well result in some confusion. CBTp has developed mainly in the UK, with different centres proposing their own theoretical models and array of clinical techniques. There were a number of reasons for this. The British tradition of social psychiatry and the work of the Medical Research Council Social Psychiatry Unit over five decades or more in investigating the importance of social factors in the course of psychosis was a significant challenge to purely biological explanations. Associated with this was the development of stress-vulnerability models of psychosis. Later, family intervention studies demonstrated that psychosocial interventions could reduce relapse rates in schizophrenia. The second important factor was the expansion of CBT in the treatment of anxiety and depression. This provided the diversity of techniques, theoretical development and skills base that allowed expansion into the treatment of psychosis. As well as approaches to cognitive therapy developed by Beck, other cognitive and behavioral approaches were also influential, such as self-management, rational emotive therapy and applied behavioral analysis. In a systematic review , we classified the treatments used in 34 trials depending on the cognitive or behavioral focus of the intervention, and found that larger effect sizes were associated with more behavioral techniques. Cognitive therapy could, perhaps unkindly, be considered “the bastard child of the medical model”, and the importance of social, familial and environmental factors emphasized in earlier more behavioral formulations were sidelined with the increased interest in internal (thinking) processes."
In-text: (Tarrier, 2014)
Your Bibliography: Tarrier, N., 2014. CBT for psychosis: effectiveness, diversity, dissemination, politics, the future and technology. -, 13(3), pp.256-257.
"ABSTRACT Objective The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimic disorders has been established in research trials. This study examined whether that efficacy can be translated into effectiveness in routine clinical practice. Method Seventy-eight adult women with bulimic disorders (bulimia nervosa and atypical bulimia nervosa) undertook individual CBT, with few exclusion criteria and a treatment protocol based on evidence-based approaches, utilizing individualized formulations. Patients completed measures of eating behaviors, eating attitudes, and depression pre- and post-treatment. Eight patients dropped out. The mean number of sessions attended was 19.2. Results No pretreatment features predicted drop-out. Treatment outcome was similar whether using treatment completer or intent to treat analyses. Approximately 50% of patients were in remission by the end of treatment. There were significant improvements in mood, eating attitudes, and eating behaviors. Reductions in bingeing and vomiting were comparable to efficacy trials. Discussion The improvements in this “real-world” trial of CBT for adults with bulimic disorders mirrored those from large, funded research trials, though the conclusions that can be reached are inevitably limited by the nature of the trial (e.g., lack of control group and therapy validation). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:13–17)"
In-text: (Waller et al., 2013)
Your Bibliography: Waller, G., Gray, E., Hinrichsen, H., Mountford, V., Lawson, R. and Patient, E., 2013. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and atypical bulimic nervosa: Effectiveness in clinical settings. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 47(1), pp.13-17.
"Abstract Quality of life (QOL) is the degree of enjoyment and satisfaction experienced in life, and embraces emotional well-being, physical health, economic and living circumstances, and work satisfaction. QOL recovery with eating disorder treatment has received sparse attention, and until now, no study has investigated QOL recovery with enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Patients (n = 196) admitted to a specialist eating disorders outpatient programme and receiving CBT-E completed measures of QOL, eating disorder psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem, before and after treatment. QOL at intake was compared with community norms, and QOL below the norm was predicted from sociodemographic and clinical correlates with logistic regression. Baseline QOL below the norm was associated with depression and anxiety Axis I comorbidity, and severity of depressive symptoms. Predictors of post-treatment QOL were baseline QOL and level of depressive symptoms and self-esteem at post-treatment. CBT-E was associated with gains in QOL over the course of treatment, in addition to eating disorder symptom relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association."
In-text: (Watson et al., 2012)
Your Bibliography: Watson, H., Allen, K., Fursland, A., Byrne, S. and Nathan, P., 2012. Does Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorders Improve Quality of Life?. European Eating Disorders Review, 20(5), pp.393-399.
"The current study investigated the effectiveness of a combined mindfulness-CBT group therapy program for women with binge eating problems. Questionnaires were completed by group participants pre-program (n = 30), post-program (n = 30) and 3 month follow-up (n = 28). Significant reductions between pre- and post-program scores were found on standardised measures assessing binge eating, dieting, and body image dissatisfaction, with all reductions maintained at follow-up. Qualitative interviews with 16 women following completion of the program revealed the value of mindfulness in improving eating behaviour through increased self-awareness. This exploratory study supports the value of adding mindfulness to the more commonly utilised CBT-based programs for binge eating."
In-text: (Woolhouse, Knowles and Crafti, 2012)
Your Bibliography: Woolhouse, H., Knowles, A. and Crafti, N., 2012. Adding Mindfulness to CBT Programs for Binge Eating: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation. Eating Disorders, 20(4), pp.321-339.
In-text: (WU, 2008)
Your Bibliography: WU, W., 2008. Assessment of reliability and validity of food frequency questionnaire. Acad J sec Mil Med Univ, 28(5), pp.571-573.
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