These are the sources and citations used to research Sex Trafficking victims protection in Germany. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on

  • Interview

    Prostitution and Human Trafficking can not be separated

    2014

    In its "Lagebild Menschenhandel" (Annual report on trafficking in human beings), the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA, Federal Criminal Police Office) reports approximately 700 cases every year. This is cited as evidence that the problem is not too big in Germany. For me this is not a "report", but rather the documentation of policy failure! We have in our country hundreds of thousands of women exposed to a milieu which is in parts highly criminal. The fact that only 500 or 700 trafficking cases are reported annually to the BKA attests to the existence of a gigantic blind spot / underground world. First of all, the offense of trafficking is defined in a highly complicated manner, and the hurdles to proving it are quite high. The second problem lies with the judicial processes: the red light milieu has succeeded like no other to stall application of the law in court. For example, milieu lawyers file evidence motions that lead to Belarus, the Ukraine or to Absurdistan. So the courts are eventually forced into settlements – in favor of offenders and to the chagrin of victims and investigators. And in the end, we see a popping of champagne corks in the courtroom. So it is no surprise that the few women who dare to testify withdraw their statements in the course of such processes.

    In-text: (Prostitution and Human Trafficking can not be separated, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: 2014. Prostitution and Human Trafficking can not be separated.

  • Website

    2002/629/JHA: Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings

    2002

    In-text: (2002/629/JHA: Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings, 2002)

    Your Bibliography: Access to European Union Law-Eur-lex.europa.eu. 2002. 2002/629/JHA: Council Framework Decision of 19 July 2002 on combating trafficking in human beings. [online] Available at: <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32002F0629> [Accessed 1 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    Arbeiterwohlfahrt Bundesverband e.V.

    Standards für die Frauenhäuser der Arbeiterwohlfahrt

    2005 - Bonn

    In-text: (Arbeiterwohlfahrt Bundesverband e.V., 2005)

    Your Bibliography: Arbeiterwohlfahrt Bundesverband e.V., 2005. Standards für die Frauenhäuser der Arbeiterwohlfahrt. Bonn, p.5.

  • Journal

    Aston, J. N. and Paranjape, V. N.

    Victims of Human Trafficking: A Human Rights Perspective

    SSRN Journal

    In-text: (Aston and Paranjape, n.d.)

    Your Bibliography: Aston, J. and Paranjape, V., n.d. Victims of Human Trafficking: A Human Rights Perspective. SSRN Journal,.

  • Website

    AWO Bielefeld: Frauenhaus

    2015

    In-text: (AWO Bielefeld: Frauenhaus, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Awo-bielefeld.de. 2015. AWO Bielefeld: Frauenhaus. [online] Available at: <http://www.awo-bielefeld.de/index.php?id=154> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Breuer, R.

    Germany too lax on Human Trafficking?

    2013 - Deutsche Welle

    In-text: (Breuer, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Breuer, R., 2013. Germany too lax on Human Trafficking?. Deutsche Welle, [online] Available at: <http://www.dw.de/germany-too-lax-on-human-trafficking/a-16724634> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Journal

    Broadhead, R. S. and Rist, R. C.

    Gatekeepers and the Social Control of Social Research

    1976 - Social Problems

    In-text: (Broadhead and Rist, 1976)

    Your Bibliography: Broadhead, R. and Rist, R., 1976. Gatekeepers and the Social Control of Social Research. Social Problems, [online] 23(3), pp.325-336. Available at: <http://www.sfu.ca/~palys/Broadhead&Rist-Gatekeepers.pdf> [Accessed 20 March 2015].

  • Website

    Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben

    Aktuelles | Hilfetelefon Gewalt gegen Frauen - 08000 116 016

    2015

    In-text: (Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben, 2015. Aktuelles | Hilfetelefon Gewalt gegen Frauen - 08000 116 016. [online] Hilfetelefon.de. Available at: <https://www.hilfetelefon.de/aktuelles.html> [Accessed 18 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben und Bundesamt für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend

    2014 Jahresbericht des Hilfetelefons Gewalt gegen Frauen: Statistische Auswertung

    2014 - Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben Öffentlichkeitsarbeit - Köln

    In-text: (Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben und Bundesamt für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben und Bundesamt für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, 2014. 2014 Jahresbericht des Hilfetelefons Gewalt gegen Frauen: Statistische Auswertung. Köln: Bundesamt für Familie und zivilgesellschaftliche Aufgaben Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, pp.14. Grafik 11.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundeskriminalamt

    Determinanten der Aussagebereitschaft von Opfern des Menschenhandels zum Zweck sexueller Ausbeutung Eine qualitative Opferbefragung

    2010 - Luchterland - Köln

    In-text: (Bundeskriminalamt, 2010)

    Your Bibliography: Bundeskriminalamt, 2010. Determinanten der Aussagebereitschaft von Opfern des Menschenhandels zum Zweck sexueller Ausbeutung Eine qualitative Opferbefragung. Köln: Luchterland.

  • Report

    Bundeskriminalamt

    Menschenhandel Bundeslagebild 2013

    2013 - Germany

    In-text: (Bundeskriminalamt, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Bundeskriminalamt, 2013. Menschenhandel Bundeslagebild 2013. Germany, p.4.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz

    Strafgestztbuch (StGB) - German Criminal Code

    Germany

    In-text: (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, n.d.)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, n.d. Strafgestztbuch (StGB) - German Criminal Code. Germany, p.Achtzehnter Abschnitt Straftaten gegen die persönliche Freiheit. § 232 Menschenhandel zum Zweck der sexuellen Ausbeutung.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz

    Strafgestztbuch (StGB) - German Criminal Code

    Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz - Germany

    In-text: (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, n.d.)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, n.d. Strafgestztbuch (StGB) - German Criminal Code. Germany: Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, pp.Dreizehnter Abschnitt Straftaten gegen die sexuelle Selbstbestimmung - § 180a Ausbeutung von Prostituierten und § 181a Zuhälterei.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz

    Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln

    1982

    In-text: (Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, 1982)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, 1982. Gesetz über den Verkehr mit Betäubungsmitteln.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

    Gesetz über den Aufenthalt, die Erwerbstätigkeit und die Integration von Ausländern im Bundesgebiet (Aufenthaltsgesetz - AufenthG) - Act on the Residence, Economic Activity and Integration of Foreigners in the Federal Territory Residence Act

    2014 - Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz - Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

    (7) A foreigner should not be deported to another state in which this foreigner faces a substantial concrete danger to his or her life and limb or liberty. Threats pursuant to sentence 1 to which the population or the segment of the population to which the foreigner belongs are generally exposed shall receive due consideration in decisions pursuant to Section 60a (1), sentence 1.

    In-text: (Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, 2014. Gesetz über den Aufenthalt, die Erwerbstätigkeit und die Integration von Ausländern im Bundesgebiet (Aufenthaltsgesetz - AufenthG) - Act on the Residence, Economic Activity and Integration of Foreigners in the Federal Territory Residence Act. Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz - Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, p.58.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

    Gesetz über den Aufenthalt, die Erwerbstätigkeit und die Integration von Ausländern im Bundesgebiet (Aufenthaltsgesetz - AufenthG) - Act on the Residence, Economic Activity and Integration of Foreigners in the Federal Territory Residence Act

    2014 - Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection

    (1) For reasons of international law or on humanitarian grounds or to safeguard the political interests of the Federal Republic of Germany, the supreme Land authority may order the deportation of foreigners from specific states or of categories of foreigners defined by any other means to be suspended in general or with regard to deportation to specific states for a maximum of six months. Section 23 (1) shall apply to a period in excess of six months.

    In-text: (Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, 2014. Gesetz über den Aufenthalt, die Erwerbstätigkeit und die Integration von Ausländern im Bundesgebiet (Aufenthaltsgesetz - AufenthG) - Act on the Residence, Economic Activity and Integration of Foreigners in the Federal Territory Residence Act. Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz-Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection, p.58.

  • Govt. publication

    Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz

    Grundgesetzt für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany

    2014

    Art 12 (1) Alle Deutschen haben das Recht, Beruf, Arbeitsplatz und Ausbildungsstätte frei zu wählen. Die Berufsausübung kann durch Gesetz oder auf Grund eines Gesetzes geregelt werden. (2) Niemand darf zu einer bestimmten Arbeit gezwungen werden, außer im Rahmen einer herkömmlichen allgemeinen, für alle gleichen öffentlichen Dienstleistungspflicht. (3) Zwangsarbeit ist nur bei einer gerichtlich angeordneten Freiheitsentziehung zulässig.

    In-text: (Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz, 2014. Grundgesetzt für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland - Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. p.Art. 12.

  • Website

    Deutscher Bundestag - Frank Heinrich, CDU

    2015

    In-text: (Deutscher Bundestag - Frank Heinrich, CDU, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Bundestag.de. 2015. Deutscher Bundestag - Frank Heinrich, CDU. [online] Available at: <https://www.bundestag.de/bundestag/abgeordnete18/biografien/H/heinrich_frank/258432> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Report

    Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen in Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK e.V.)

    Trafficking in Women in Germany

    2008 - Berlin

    In-text: (Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen in Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK e.V.), 2008)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen in Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK e.V.), 2008. Trafficking in Women in Germany. Berlin, pp.37-38.

  • Report

    Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen im Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK)

    Trafficking in Women in Germany

    2008 - Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth - Berlin

    In-text: (Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen im Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK), 2008)

    Your Bibliography: Bundesweiter Koordinierungskreis gegen Frauenhandel und Gewalt an Frauen im Migrationsprozess e.V. (KOK), 2008. Trafficking in Women in Germany. Berlin: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, pp.13-14.

  • Website

    Das Leid der Zwangsprostituierten

    2014

    In-text: (Das Leid der Zwangsprostituierten, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Bz-berlin.de. 2014. Das Leid der Zwangsprostituierten. [online] Available at: <http://www.bz-berlin.de/tatort/menschen-vor-gericht/das-leid-der-zwangsprostituierten> [Accessed 25 November 2014].

  • Journal

    Cho, S. and Vadlamannati, K. C.

    Compliance with the Anti-trafficking Protocol

    2012 - European Journal of Political Economy

    In-text: (Cho and Vadlamannati, 2012)

    Your Bibliography: Cho, S. and Vadlamannati, K., 2012. Compliance with the Anti-trafficking Protocol. European Journal of Political Economy, 28(2), pp.249-265.

  • Journal

    Cho, S.

    Human Trafficking: Germany Needs to do More to Protect Victims

    2012 - DIW Economic Bulletin

    In-text: (Cho, 2012)

    Your Bibliography: Cho, S., 2012. Human Trafficking: Germany Needs to do More to Protect Victims. DIW Economic Bulletin, [online] 2(11), p.5. Available at: <http://www.diw.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=diw_01.c.408799.en> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Journal

    Cho, S., Dreher, A. and Neumayer, E.

    Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?

    2013 - World Development

    In-text: (Cho, Dreher and Neumayer, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Cho, S., Dreher, A. and Neumayer, E., 2013. Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?. World Development, [online] 41, pp.67-69 and 75. Available at: <http://www.lse.ac.uk/geographyAndEnvironment/whosWho/profiles/neumayer/pdf/Article-for-World-Development-_prostitution_-anonymous-REVISED.pdf> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Journal

    Chuang, J.

    Beyond a Snapshot: Preventing Human Trafficking in the Global Economy

    2006 - Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies

    In-text: (Chuang, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Chuang, J., 2006. Beyond a Snapshot: Preventing Human Trafficking in the Global Economy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 13(1), pp.137-163.

  • Govt. publication

    COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

    COMMUNICA TJON FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ON TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN FOR THE PURPOSE OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

    1996 - European Union - Brussels

    Trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation covers women who have suffered intimidation and/or violence through the trafficking. Initial consent may not be relevant, as some enter the trafficking chain knowing they will work as prostitutes, but who arc then deprived of their basic human rights, in conditions which arc akin to slavery. The Communication does not however seck to address the question of women who arc not put under duress by a third party to travel to work as prostitutes over borders, nor does it address the questions of black market labour in other sectors in the European Union.

    In-text: (COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, 1996)

    Your Bibliography: COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES, 1996. COMMUNICA TJON FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE COUNCIL AND THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT ON TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN FOR THE PURPOSE OF SEXUAL EXPLOITATION. Brussels: European Union.

  • Website

    Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

    Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Germany

    2014

    In-text: (Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2014. Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: Germany. [online] Coe.int. Available at: <http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/Profiles/GERMANYProfile_en.asp> [Accessed 22 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings

    2005 - European Union - Warsaw

    Art. 1 - Purposes of the convention a) to prevent and combat trafficking in human beings, while guaranteeing gender equality b) to protect the human rights of the victims of trafficking, design a comprehensive framework for the protection and assistance of victims and witnesses, while guaranteeing gender equality, as well as to ensure effective investigation and prosecution; c) to promote international cooperation on action against trafficking in human beings. 2. In order to ensure effective implementation of its provisions by the parties, this Convention sets up a specific monitoring mechanism

    In-text: (Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2005)

    Your Bibliography: Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, 2005. Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. Warsaw: European Union.

  • Report

    Department of State United States of America

    Trafficking in Persons Report 2014 - The Vulnerability of LGBT Individuals to Human Tr

    2014

    " For example, in 2013, NGOs working on LGBT issues in Argentina identified traffickers who promised transgender women job opportunities in Europe, but instead confiscated their passports and forced them into prostitution. Police in the Philippines have identified LGBT trafficking victims during anti-trafficking operations. Civil society in South Africa has identified instances of traffickers coercing LGBT children to remain in prostitution under threat of disclosing their sexual orientation or gender identity to their families".

    In-text: (Department of State United States of America, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Department of State United States of America, 2014. Trafficking in Persons Report 2014 - The Vulnerability of LGBT Individuals to Human Tr. [online] p.10. Available at: <http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/?utm_source=NEW+RESOURCE:+Trafficking+in+Persons+R> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Magazine

    Bordel Deutschland, Wie die Stadt Frauenhandel und Prostitution fördert: Flat-Rate Horror

    2013 - Der Spiegel

    In-text: (Bordel Deutschland, Wie die Stadt Frauenhandel und Prostitution fördert: Flat-Rate Horror, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Der Spiegel, 2013. Bordel Deutschland, Wie die Stadt Frauenhandel und Prostitution fördert: Flat-Rate Horror. [online] (22), p.Teil 2. Flat-Rate Horror. Available at: <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/human-trafficking-persists-despite-legality-of-prostitution-in-germany-a-902533-2.html> [Accessed 20 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Deutsche Welle

    Zwangsprostitution in Deutschland: BKA geht von großem Dunkelfeld aus

    2011 - Deutsche Welle

    In-text: (Deutsche Welle, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: Deutsche Welle, 2011. Zwangsprostitution in Deutschland: BKA geht von großem Dunkelfeld aus. [online] Available at: <http://www.dw.de/zwangsprostitution-in-deutschland/a-15067067> [Accessed 20 April 2015].

  • Report

    Deutsches Institut für Menschenrechte German Institute for Human Rights and Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” (EVZ)

    Domestic Workers in Diplomats’ Households Rights Violations and Access to Justice in the Context of Diplomatic Immunity

    2011 - Berlin

    In-text: (Deutsches Institut für Menschenrechte German Institute for Human Rights and Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” (EVZ), 2011)

    Your Bibliography: Deutsches Institut für Menschenrechte German Institute for Human Rights and Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” (EVZ), 2011. Domestic Workers in Diplomats’ Households Rights Violations and Access to Justice in the Context of Diplomatic Immunity. [online] Berlin. Available at: <http://www.institut-fuer-menschenrechte.de/uploads/tx_commerce/domestic_workers_in_diplomats_households_03.pdf> [Accessed 21 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Diu, N. L.

    Welcome to Paradise

    2013 - The Telegraph

    Two years later, prostitution in Germany was thought to be worth 6 billion euros – roughly the same as Porsche or Adidas that year. It’s now estimated to be 15 billion euros.

    In-text: (Diu, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Diu, N., 2013. Welcome to Paradise. The Telegraph, [online] Available at: <http://s.telegraph.co.uk/graphics/projects/welcome-to-paradise/> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Website

    e.V., K.

    KOK - About us

    2015

    In-text: (e.V., 2015)

    Your Bibliography: e.V., K., 2015. KOK - About us. [online] Kok-gegen-menschenhandel.de. Available at: <http://www.kok-gegen-menschenhandel.de/en/about-us.html> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Website

    Sex Trafficking Acts, Means and Purpose

    In-text: (Sex Trafficking Acts, Means and Purpose, n.d.)

    Your Bibliography: Endvawnow.org. n.d. Sex Trafficking Acts, Means and Purpose. [online] Available at: <http://www.endvawnow.org/en/articles/548-sex-trafficking-acts-means-and-purpose.html> [Accessed 14 January 2015].

  • Website

    European Commission - EU Network of National Rapporteurs and Equivalent Mechanisms

    Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings - European Commission - Germany

    2015

    In-text: (European Commission - EU Network of National Rapporteurs and Equivalent Mechanisms, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: European Commission - EU Network of National Rapporteurs and Equivalent Mechanisms, 2015. Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings - European Commission - Germany. [online] Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/content/nip/germany_en> [Accessed 18 March 2015].

  • Website

    European Commission

    Together against Trafficking in Human Beings: Germany - 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

    2015

    In-text: (European Commission, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: European Commission, 2015. Together against Trafficking in Human Beings: Germany - 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY. [online] Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/member-states/germany-3-implementation-anti-trafficking-policy_en> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Website

    European Institute for Gender Equality

    What is gender-based violence?

    2015

    The Council of Europe defines violence against women as ‘all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are likely to result in, physical, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.’ Gender-based violence (GBV) is violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender. It constitutes a breach of the fundamental right to life, liberty, security, dignity, equality between women and men, non-discrimination and physical and mental integrity. Gender-based violence reflects and reinforces inequalities between men and women. Gender-based violence and violence against women are often used interchangeably as most gender-based violence is inflicted by men on women and girls. It is estimated that 20 to 25% of women in Europe have suffered physical violence. The number of women who have suffered from other forms of gender-based violence is much higher. Although it is difficult to distinguish between different types of violence since they are not mutually exclusive, gender-based violence includes: a) domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, sexual violence during conflict and harmful customary or traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, forced marriages and honour crimes; b) trafficking in women, forced prostitution and violations of human rights in armed conflict (in particular murder, systematic rape, sexual slavery and forced pregnancy); c) forced sterilisation, forced abortion, coercive use of contraceptives, female infanticide and prenatal sex selection.

    In-text: (European Institute for Gender Equality, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: European Institute for Gender Equality, 2015. What is gender-based violence?. [online] European Institute for Gender Equality. Available at: <http://eige.europa.eu/content/what-is-gender-based-violence> [Accessed 18 March 2015].

  • Report

    European Parliament - Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs

    Sexual Exploitation and Prostitution and its Impact on Gender Equality

    2014 - European Parliament - Brussels

    The sex industry trade association “Erotik Gewerbe Deutschland (UEGD)” estimates that there are between 3000-3500 red-light establishments in the country. The Ver.di trade union estimates that the annual revenues of the industry at around €14.5 Billion. It is calculated that in Germany there could be around 400000-450000 prostitutes, 90% of them female. The percentage of female prostitutes who are migrants has significantly increased; the last estimations show that two-thirds (65%) of prostitutes are migrants, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe".

    In-text: (European Parliament - Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: European Parliament - Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, 2014. Sexual Exploitation and Prostitution and its Impact on Gender Equality. [online] Brussels: European Parliament, p.43. Available at: <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/493040/IPOL-FEMM_ET%282014%29493040_EN.pdf> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    European Parliament and the Council of Europe

    DIRECTIVE 2011/36/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

    2011 - Official Journal of the European Union

    In-text: (European Parliament and the Council of Europe, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: European Parliament and the Council of Europe, 2011. DIRECTIVE 2011/36/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL. Official Journal of the European Union, pp.Legislative Acts Art. 1[4] to [30].

  • Report

    Eurostat European Commission

    Trafficking in Human Beings

    2013 - Luxembourg Publications Office for the European Union

    In-text: (Eurostat European Commission, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Eurostat European Commission, 2013. Trafficking in Human Beings. Luxembourg Publications Office for the European Union.

  • Report

    Federal Ministery for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth

    The Federal Government on the Impact of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act)

    2007 - Federal Ministery for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth

    In-text: (Federal Ministery for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, 2007)

    Your Bibliography: Federal Ministery for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, 2007. The Federal Government on the Impact of the Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act). [online] Federal Ministery for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, p.23. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/federal_government_report_of_the_impact_of_the_act_regulating_the_legal_situation_of_prostitutes_2007_en_1.pdf> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • Report

    Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth

    Report by the Federal Government on the Impact of the Act regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act)

    2007 - Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth - Berlin

    In-text: (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, 2007)

    Your Bibliography: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, 2007. Report by the Federal Government on the Impact of the Act regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes (Prostitution Act). [online] Berlin: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, pp.11 Paragraph 2. Available at: <https://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/federal_government_report_of_the_impact_of_the_act_regulating_the_legal_situation_of_prostitutes_2007_en_1.pdf> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    Federal Office for Migration and Refugees / European Migration Network

    Identification of victims of trafficking in human beings in international protection and forced return procedures Focussed Study of the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN)

    2013

    In-text: (Federal Office for Migration and Refugees / European Migration Network, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees / European Migration Network, 2013. Identification of victims of trafficking in human beings in international protection and forced return procedures Focussed Study of the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN). pp.12-13.

  • Govt. publication

    Federal Office for Migration and Refugees

    Identification of victims of trafficking in human beings in international protection and forced return procedures Focussed Study of the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN)

    2013

    In-text: (Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, 2013. Identification of victims of trafficking in human beings in international protection and forced return procedures Focussed Study of the German National Contact Point for the European Migration Network (EMN). p.10.

  • Website

    Was wir tun - FIGHT Global Human Trafficking e.V.

    2015

    Wir forschen zum Thema Menschenhandel. Gleichzeitig sammeln wir Informationen, Forschungsergebnisse und neue Forschungsansätze zum Themenfeld und stellen sie der Öffentlichkeit zur Verfügung. Uns geht es in erster Linie um die Verbindung von wissenschaftlicher Theorie und Praxis, d.h. wir werden regelmäßig weltweit erscheinende Studien auf unserer Webseite veröffentlichen, damit in der Praxis Beschäftigte, aber auch Studierende davon erfahren

    In-text: (Was wir tun - FIGHT Global Human Trafficking e.V., 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Fight-human-trafficking.org. 2015. Was wir tun - FIGHT Global Human Trafficking e.V.. [online] Available at: <http://www.fight-human-trafficking.org/personen/> [Accessed 20 March 2015].

  • Website

    Evangelische Frauenhilfe in Westfalen e.V. :: Einrichtungen >> Anti-Gewalt-Arbeit >> Menschenhandel

    2015

    In-text: (Evangelische Frauenhilfe in Westfalen e.V. :: Einrichtungen >> Anti-Gewalt-Arbeit >> Menschenhandel, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Frauenhilfe-westfalen.de. 2015. Evangelische Frauenhilfe in Westfalen e.V. :: Einrichtungen >> Anti-Gewalt-Arbeit >> Menschenhandel. [online] Available at: <http://www.frauenhilfe-westfalen.de/menschenhandel.php> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Book

    Gallagher, A. T.

    The international law of human trafficking

    2010 - Cambridge University Press - New York

    In-text: (Gallagher, 2010)

    Your Bibliography: Gallagher, A., 2010. The international law of human trafficking. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp.55-56.

  • Newspaper

    Goldberg, M.

    Swedish prostitution law is spreading worldwide – here's how to improve it

    2014 - The Guardian

    In-text: (Goldberg, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Goldberg, M., 2014. Swedish prostitution law is spreading worldwide – here's how to improve it. The Guardian, [online] Available at: <http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/08/criminsalise-buying-not-selling-sex> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Book

    Grenz, S. and Lücke, M.

    Verhandlungen im Zwielicht: Momente der Prostitution in Geschichte und Gegenwart

    2006 - Transcript - Bielefeld

    In-text: (Grenz and Lücke, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Grenz, S. and Lücke, M., 2006. Verhandlungen im Zwielicht: Momente der Prostitution in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Bielefeld: Transcript, p.134.

  • Book

    Guild, E. and Minderhoud, P.

    Immigration and criminal law in the European Union: The Legal Measures and Social Consequences of Criminal Law in Member States on Trafficking and Smuggling in Human Beings

    2006 - Martinus Nijhoff Publishers - Leiden

    In-text: (Guild and Minderhoud, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Guild, E. and Minderhoud, P., 2006. Immigration and criminal law in the European Union: The Legal Measures and Social Consequences of Criminal Law in Member States on Trafficking and Smuggling in Human Beings. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp.118-120.

  • Journal

    Haynes, D. F.

    Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Benefits to Protect the Victims of Trafficking and to Secure the Prosecution of Traffickers

    2004 - Human Rights Quarterly

    In-text: (Haynes, 2004)

    Your Bibliography: Haynes, D., 2004. Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Benefits to Protect the Victims of Trafficking and to Secure the Prosecution of Traffickers. Human Rights Quarterly, 26(2), pp.221-272.

  • Presentation or lecture

    Heinrich, F.

    The Situation and the Debate about Forced Prostitution in Germany

    2014 - Heidelberg

    Coalition Agreement 2013: „Human Trafficking and Places of Prostitution: We want to protect women better from human trafficking and forced prostitution and to penalize the criminals more consequently. In the future, criminal convictions should not fail anymore because the victims do not give testimony. For the victims, we will improve the residence law in due consideration of their input to the clarification of facts, their participation in the proceedings and their personal situations, and we will guarantee an intensive support, assistance and counseling. Besides, with regards to the regulation of prostitution, we will comprehensively revise the prostitution act and improve the legal possibilities of control through the regulatory agencies. Not only against the human traffickers, but also against those who wittingly and deliberately exploit the plight of victims of human trafficking and forced prostitution and take advantage of their situation for sexual abuse, we will take action. We will focus more on forced labor with regards to fighting human trafficking.“ Heinrich Frank is a member of the German Bundestag.

    In-text: (Heinrich, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Heinrich, F., 2014. The Situation and the Debate about Forced Prostitution in Germany.

  • Conference proceedings

    Hugues, D.

    The Demand: Where Sex Trafficking begins?

    2004 - University of Rhode Island - Rhode Island

    In-text: (Hugues, 2004)

    Your Bibliography: Hugues, D., 2004. The Demand: Where Sex Trafficking begins?. In: A Call to Action: Joining the Fight against Trafficking in Persons. [online] Rhode Island: University of Rhode Island, pp.1-6. Available at: <http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/demand_rome_june04.pdf> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • E-book or PDF

    Hugues, D.

    The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking

    2005 - University of Rhode Island - Rhode Island

    In-text: (Hugues, 2005)

    Your Bibliography: Hugues, D., 2005. The Demand for Victims of Sex Trafficking. 1st ed. [ebook] Rhode Island: University of Rhode Island, p.5. Available at: <http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/demand_for_victims.pdf> [Accessed 1 March 2015].

  • Website

    Hugues, D.

    Combating Sex Trafficking: A History - Fair Observer

    2013

    In-text: (Hugues, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Hugues, D., 2013. Combating Sex Trafficking: A History - Fair Observer. [online] Fair Observer. Available at: <http://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/combating-sex-trafficking-history/> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • Report

    International Labour Office

    Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour

    2014 - Geneva

    In-text: (International Labour Office, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: International Labour Office, 2014. Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour. Geneva, pp.26-28.

  • Govt. publication

    International Organization for Migration

    Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey

    2005 - International Organization for Migration - Geneva

    "As pointed out by Tydlum and Brunovskis, one of the most challenging problems facing researchers is the fact that most of the populations relevant to the study of human trafficking, such as victims/survivors of trafficking for sexual exploitation, traffickers, or illegal migrants are part of a “hidden population”, i.e. it is almost impossible to establish a sampling frame and draw a representative sample of the population. The papers dealing with research methods highlight some of the key problems encountered when conducting trafficking research".

    In-text: (International Organization for Migration, 2005)

    Your Bibliography: International Organization for Migration, 2005. Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey. Geneva: International Organization for Migration, pp.5-15.

  • Report

    INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION

    TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND THE 2006 WORLD CUP IN GERMANY

    2006

    In-text: (INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION, 2006. TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS AND THE 2006 WORLD CUP IN GERMANY.

  • Conference proceedings

    Jarbussynova, M.

    Ambassador Madina Jarbussynova, OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings Presentation to the OSCE Permanent Council

    2014 - Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) - Viena

    In-text: (Jarbussynova, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Jarbussynova, M., 2014. Ambassador Madina Jarbussynova, OSCE Special Representative and Co-ordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings Presentation to the OSCE Permanent Council. In: 14th Alliance against Trafficking in Persons conference, “Ethical issues in Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking.”. [online] Viena: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), p.3. Available at: <http://www.osce.org/pc/132616?download=true> [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Journal

    Jorge-Birol, A. P.

    Empowering Victims of Human Trafficking: the Role of Support, Assistance and Protection Policies.

    2008 - HUMSEC Journal

    In-text: (Jorge-Birol, 2008)

    Your Bibliography: Jorge-Birol, A., 2008. Empowering Victims of Human Trafficking: the Role of Support, Assistance and Protection Policies. HUMSEC Journal, [online] (2), pp.1-16. Available at: <http://www.humsec.eu/cms/fileadmin/user_upload/humsec/Journal/Pedra.pdf> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • E-book or PDF

    Julia, R.

    Prostitution Reform and the Reconstruction of Gender in the Weimer Republic

    2010

    In-text: (Julia, 2010)

    Your Bibliography: Julia, R., 2010. Prostitution Reform and the Reconstruction of Gender in the Weimer Republic. 1st ed. [ebook] pp.3-4. Available at: <http://www.prostitutionresearch.info/pdfs_all/Weimar_Roos.pdf> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • Website

    Kannemann, B.

    Wer ist ein Loverboy? | NO loverboys

    2015

    Wer oder was ist überhaupt ein Loverboy? Loverboys sind Zuhälter mit Don-Juan-Allüren, die meist selbst noch Teenager sind und minderjährige Mädchen im Alter ab 11 Jahren in die Prostitution zwingen. Loverboys sprechen von der großen Liebe, machen großzügige Geschenke, schleichen sich im Freundeskreis ein, suchen sich ihre Opfer vor Schulen, in der Nähe von Jugendtreffs oder im Web.

    In-text: (Kannemann, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Kannemann, B., 2015. Wer ist ein Loverboy? | NO loverboys. [online] No-loverboys.de. Available at: <http://www.no-loverboys.de/loverboys/wer-ist-ein-loverboy/> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • E-book or PDF

    Kavemann, B. and Rabe, H.

    The Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes – implementation, impact, current developments: Findings of a study on the impact of the German Prostitution Act

    2007 - Sozialwissenschaftliches FrauenForschungsInstitut an der Evangelischen Fachhochschule Freiburg - Berlin

    In-text: (Kavemann and Rabe, 2007)

    Your Bibliography: Kavemann, B. and Rabe, H., 2007. The Act Regulating the Legal Situation of Prostitutes – implementation, impact, current developments: Findings of a study on the impact of the German Prostitution Act. 1st ed. [ebook] Berlin: Sozialwissenschaftliches FrauenForschungsInstitut an der Evangelischen Fachhochschule Freiburg, pp.4-9. Available at: <http://www.cahrv.uni-osnabrueck.de/reddot/BroschuereProstGenglisch.pdf> [Accessed 15 March 2015].

  • Book

    Korićanac, I. and European Union

    Human Trafficking Trauma and Psychotherapy

    2013 - NGO Astra - Tamara Vukasović - Belgrade

    In-text: (Korićanac and European Union, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Korićanac, I. and European Union, 2013. Human Trafficking Trauma and Psychotherapy. Belgrade: NGO Astra - Tamara Vukasović.

  • DVD, video, or film

    Mädchenhandel - Eine internationale Gefahr

    1926 - Jaap Speyer - Germany

    In-text: (Mädchenhandel - Eine internationale Gefahr, 1926)

    Your Bibliography: Mädchenhandel - Eine internationale Gefahr. 1926. [film] Germany: Jaap Speyer.

  • DVD, video, or film

    Menschenhandel in Europa: Billignachschub für deutsche Puffs

    2013 - Rita Knobel-Ulrich - ZDF

    In-text: (Menschenhandel in Europa: Billignachschub für deutsche Puffs, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Menschenhandel in Europa: Billignachschub für deutsche Puffs. 2013. [film] ZDF: Rita Knobel-Ulrich.

  • Website

    Economic regions in North Rhine-Westphalia

    2015

    In-text: (Economic regions in North Rhine-Westphalia, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Nrwinvest.com. 2015. Economic regions in North Rhine-Westphalia. [online] Available at: <http://www.nrwinvest.com/NRW_at_a_glance/Economic_Regions_in_NRW/index.php> [Accessed 16 April 2015].

  • Website

    Germany’s no. 1 economic region

    2015

    In-text: (Germany’s no. 1 economic region, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Nrwinvest.com. 2015. Germany’s no. 1 economic region. [online] Available at: <http://www.nrwinvest.com/NRW_at_a_glance/Facts_Figures/Economic_region/index.php> [Accessed 16 April 2015].

  • Website

    Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

    Protection - Four "Ps": Prevention, Protection, Prosecution, Partnerships

    2015

    Protection is key to the victim-centered approach pursued by the United States and the international community in efforts to combat modern slavery. Key victim protection efforts include the "three Rs" – rescue, rehabilitation, and reintegration".

    In-text: (Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2015. Protection - Four "Ps": Prevention, Protection, Prosecution, Partnerships. [online] State.gov. Available at: <http://www.state.gov/j/tip/4p/protect/> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

    Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

    2000 - U.S. Department of State - Washington

    In-text: (Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2000)

    Your Bibliography: Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2000. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Washington: U.S. Department of State, pp.Division A. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. Section 101 to section 113.

  • DVD, video, or film

    Operation Zucker

    2012 - Rainer Kauffmann - Das Erste

    In-text: (Operation Zucker, 2012)

    Your Bibliography: Operation Zucker. 2012. [film] Das Erste: Rainer Kauffmann.

  • Journal

    Pearson, E.

    Half-hearted protection: What does victim protection really mean for victims of trafficking in Europe?

    2002 - Gender & Development

    In-text: (Pearson, 2002)

    Your Bibliography: Pearson, E., 2002. Half-hearted protection: What does victim protection really mean for victims of trafficking in Europe?. Gender & Development, 10(1), pp.56-59.

  • Report

    Philipps Universität Marburg

    3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index 2013 Report

    2014 - Marburg

    In-text: (Philipps Universität Marburg, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Philipps Universität Marburg, 2014. 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index 2013 Report. The 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index. [online] Marburg. Available at: <http://www.economics-human-trafficking.net/mediapool/99/998280/data/3P_Index_2013_Report_1_.pdf> [Accessed 21 March 2015].

  • Book

    Roos, J.

    Weimar through the lens of gender: Prostitution Reform, Woman's Emancipation, and German Democracy, 1919-1933

    2010 - University of Michigan Press - Ann Arbor

    In-text: (Roos, 2010)

    Your Bibliography: Roos, J., 2010. Weimar through the lens of gender: Prostitution Reform, Woman's Emancipation, and German Democracy, 1919-1933. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

  • Journal

    Scarpa, S.

    CHILD TRAFFICKING: INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS TO PROTECT THE MOST VULNERABLE VICTIMS

    2006 - Family Court Review

    In-text: (Scarpa, 2006)

    Your Bibliography: Scarpa, S., 2006. CHILD TRAFFICKING: INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS TO PROTECT THE MOST VULNERABLE VICTIMS. Family Court Review, 44(3), pp.429-447.

  • Newspaper

    Schmitt, C.

    26,297 hours in sex slavery: Trapped in a new life

    2015 - Deutsche Welle

    In-text: (Schmitt, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Schmitt, C., 2015. 26,297 hours in sex slavery: Trapped in a new life. Deutsche Welle, [online] Available at: <http://www.dw.de/human-trafficking-sex-slavery/a-18171988> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • DVD, video, or film

    "Sex - Made in Germany"

    2013 - Sonia Kennebeck and Tina Solimann - ARD

    In-text: ("Sex - Made in Germany", 2013)

    Your Bibliography: "Sex - Made in Germany". 2013. [film] ARD: Sonia Kennebeck and Tina Solimann.

  • Book

    Smith, J. S.

    Berlin coquette: Prostitution and the New German Woman 1890-1933

    2014 - Cornell University Press

    In-text: (Smith, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Smith, J., 2014. Berlin coquette: Prostitution and the New German Woman 1890-1933. Cornell University Press.

  • Newspaper

    Spiegel Online

    Europas Hurenhaus: Prostitution und Frauenhandel in Deutschland

    2013 - Spiegel Online

    In-text: (Spiegel Online, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Spiegel Online, 2013. Europas Hurenhaus: Prostitution und Frauenhandel in Deutschland. [online] Available at: <http://www.spiegel.de/video/mit-prostitution-werden-in-deutschland-14-5-milliarden-euro-umgesetzt-video-1286781.html> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Spiegel Staff

    Unprotected: How Legalizing Prostitution Has Failed

    2013 - Spiegel Online

    In-text: (Spiegel Staff, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Spiegel Staff, 2013. Unprotected: How Legalizing Prostitution Has Failed. Spiegel Online, [online] Available at: <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/human-trafficking-persists-despite-legality-of-prostitution-in-germany-a-902533.html> [Accessed 19 March 2015].

  • Book

    Tahmindjis, P.

    Sexuality and Human Rights

    2014 - Taylor and Francis - Hoboken

    This basic right to sexual self-determination does encompass two sides. Correctly understood it enshrines both the right to engage in wanted sexuality and the right to be free and protected from unwanted sexuality, from sexual abuse and sexual violence. Both sides of the coin have to be given due weight and neither one neglected. Only the can human sexual dignity be fully and comprehensively respected.

    In-text: (Tahmindjis, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Tahmindjis, P., 2014. Sexuality and Human Rights. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, pp.110-111.

  • Newspaper

    The Economist

    Prostitution in Germany A giant Teutonic brothel: Has the liberalisation of the oldest profession gone too far?

    2013 - The Economist

    In-text: (The Economist, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: The Economist, 2013. Prostitution in Germany A giant Teutonic brothel: Has the liberalisation of the oldest profession gone too far?. [online] Available at: <http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21589922-has-liberalisation-oldest-profession-gone-too-far-giant-teutonic-brothel> [Accessed 20 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    The European Commission

    The EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016

    2012 - Together against Trafficking in Human Beings from the European Commission Publications

    One of the key points in the Directive on trafficking in human beings and something that is clear from the majority of the responses to the consultations on this Strategy is the need to provide training for those who work in the field. Training mechanisms and targeted, specialised programmes on trafficking in human beings must become more uniform and consistent. People who regularly have to deal with human trafficking issues need to be trained. The Commission will strengthen training focusing on the judiciary and crossborder law enforcement through the Communications on Building trust in EU-wide justice and on the European Training Scheme, planned for the end of 2012. The main focus of the Commission will be to bring together various actors in order to increase policy coherence, and as appropriate, target specific areas and actors.

    In-text: (The European Commission, 2012)

    Your Bibliography: The European Commission, 2012. The EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012–2016. Together against Trafficking in Human Beings from the European Commission Publications, p.12.

  • Newspaper

    The Independent

    Germany named best country in the world

    2014 - The Independent

    "The annual Nation Brands Index produced by Anholt-GfK, which carried out more than 20,000 interviews across 20 countries.[...] [attempt] to reflect “global public opinion. Interviewers asked people to rank the 50 developed and developing countries listed based on twenty-three different attributes. Combined, these scores meant the countries could be ranked on the value which, according to Anholt-GfK, build up a nation’s image. Germany’s score gains in the areas of ‘honest and competent government’, ‘investment climate’, and ‘social equality’ are among the largest it achieved across all the aspects covered by the NBI 2014 survey. Germany appears to have benefited [...] by solidifying its perceived leadership in Europe through a robust economy and steady political stewardship".

    In-text: (The Independent, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: The Independent, 2014. Germany named best country in the world. [online] Available at: <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/germany-named-best-country-in-the-world-9858762.html> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Website

    The National center for victims of crime

    The Criminal Justice System

    2012

    Entry into the System Report: Law enforcement officers receive the crime report from victims, witnesses, or other parties (or witness the crime themselves and make a report). Investigation: Law enforcement investigates the crime. Officers try to identify a suspect and find enough evidence to arrest the suspect they think may be responsible. Arrest or Citation: If they find a suspect and enough evidence, officers may arrest the suspect or issue a citation for the suspect to appear in court at a specific time. This decision depends on the nature of the crime and other factors. If officers do not find a suspect and enough evidence, the case remains open.

    In-text: (The National center for victims of crime, 2012)

    Your Bibliography: The National center for victims of crime, 2012. The Criminal Justice System. [online] Victimsofcrime.org. Available at: <http://www.victimsofcrime.org/help-for-crime-victims/get-help-bulletins-for-crime-victims/the-criminal-justice-system> [Accessed 18 March 2015].

  • Website

    Germany - 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY

    2015

    In-text: (Germany - 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Together Against Trafficking in Human Beings. 2015. Germany - 3. IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-TRAFFICKING POLICY. [online] Available at: <http://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/member-states/germany-3-implementation-anti-trafficking-policy_en> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Tuttle, B.

    Germany Has Become the Cut-Rate Prostitution Capital of the World

    2013 - Time

    In-text: (Tuttle, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: Tuttle, B., 2013. Germany Has Become the Cut-Rate Prostitution Capital of the World. Time, [online] Available at: <http://business.time.com/2013/06/18/germany-has-become-the-cut-rate-prostitution-capital-of-the-world/> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    U.S. Department of State

    The Link Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking

    2004 - U.S. Department of State - Washington, DC

    In-text: (U.S. Department of State, 2004)

    Your Bibliography: U.S. Department of State, 2004. The Link Between Prostitution and Sex Trafficking. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State.

  • Report

    U.S. Department of State

    Trafficking in Persons Report

    2013

    In-text: (U.S. Department of State, 2013)

    Your Bibliography: U.S. Department of State, 2013. Trafficking in Persons Report. p.176.

  • Website

    What is Modern Slavery?

    2015

    Over the past 15 years, “trafficking in persons” and “human trafficking” have been used as umbrella terms for activities involved when someone obtains or holds a person in compelled service.

    In-text: (What is Modern Slavery?, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: U.S. Department of State: Diplomacy in Action State.gov. 2015. What is Modern Slavery?. [online] Available at: <http://www.state.gov/j/tip/what/> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

  • Press release

    UNICEF Deutschland - ECPAT

    WELTWEIT IMMER MEHR KINDER UND JUGENDLICHE OPFER VON MENSCHENHANDEL

    2015

    Aus der Sicht von UNICEF und ECPAT müssen Schutz und Hilfe für die Betroffenen verbessert werden. Dazu gehören zum Beispiel Rechtsbeistand, Aufenthaltserlaubnisse, Unterkünfte, medizinische Versorgung und Unterstützung bei der Rückkehr in die Heimat.

    In-text: (UNICEF Deutschland - ECPAT, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: UNICEF Deutschland - ECPAT, 2015. WELTWEIT IMMER MEHR KINDER UND JUGENDLICHE OPFER VON MENSCHENHANDEL. [online] Available at: <http://www.unicef.de/presse/2013/kinderschutz-unicef-ecpat/11312> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Govt. publication

    UNIFEM and The Advocates for Human Rights

    Developing Legislation on Violence against Women and Girls

    2011

    In-text: (UNIFEM and The Advocates for Human Rights, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: UNIFEM and The Advocates for Human Rights, 2011. Developing Legislation on Violence against Women and Girls. pp.221-228.

  • Govt. publication

    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons

    2009 - United Nations Publications

    In-text: (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009)

    Your Bibliography: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2009. A Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. United Nations Publications, pp.6-7.

  • Govt. publication

    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014

    2014 - United Nations Publication - Vienna

    In-text: (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014. Vienna: United Nations Publication, p.5.

  • Govt. publication

    United Nations

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

    1948 - Paris

    In-text: (United Nations, 1948)

    Your Bibliography: United Nations, 1948. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Paris.

  • Govt. publication

    UNODC

    Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

    2000 - United Nations - Palermo

    In-text: (UNODC, 2000)

    Your Bibliography: UNODC, 2000. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Palermo: United Nations.

  • Govt. publication

    UNODC

    Model Law against Trafficking in Persons

    2009 - United Nations Rule of Law

    In-text: (UNODC, 2009)

    Your Bibliography: UNODC, 2009. Model Law against Trafficking in Persons. United Nations Rule of Law.

  • Govt. publication

    UNODC, ILO, UNHCR, UNICEF, OHCHR, UN Women

    Joint UN Commentary on the EU Directive – A Human Rights-Based Approach PREVENT COMBAT PROTECT

    2011

    In-text: (UNODC, ILO, UNHCR, UNICEF, OHCHR, UN Women, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: UNODC, ILO, UNHCR, UNICEF, OHCHR, UN Women, 2011. Joint UN Commentary on the EU Directive – A Human Rights-Based Approach PREVENT COMBAT PROTECT.

  • Website

    Signatories to the CTOC Trafficking Protocol

    2000

    In-text: (Signatories to the CTOC Trafficking Protocol, 2000)

    Your Bibliography: Unodc.org. 2000. Signatories to the CTOC Trafficking Protocol. [online] Available at: <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/countrylist-traffickingprotocol.html> [Accessed 1 March 2015].

  • Website

    Victim assistance and witness protection

    2015

    In-text: (Victim assistance and witness protection, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Unodc.org. 2015. Victim assistance and witness protection. [online] Available at: <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/organized-crime/witness-protection.html> [Accessed 16 March 2015].

  • Website

    What is Human Trafficking? Elements of Human Trafficking

    2015

    In-text: (What is Human Trafficking? Elements of Human Trafficking, 2015)

    Your Bibliography: Unodc.org. 2015. What is Human Trafficking? Elements of Human Trafficking. [online] Available at: <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html?ref=menuside> [Accessed 17 March 2015].

  • Report

    UNODOC

    Global Report on Trafficking in Persons

    2014 - Vienna

    In-text: (UNODOC, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: UNODOC, 2014. Global Report on Trafficking in Persons. [online] Vienna, p.28. Available at: <http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/glotip/GLOTIP_2014_full_report.pdf> [Accessed 26 February 2015].

  • DVD, video, or film

    Verkauft, verschleppt, missbraucht - Vom Kampf gegen den Menschenhandel

    2014 - Bayerisches Fernsehen

    In-text: (Verkauft, verschleppt, missbraucht - Vom Kampf gegen den Menschenhandel, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Verkauft, verschleppt, missbraucht - Vom Kampf gegen den Menschenhandel. 2014. [film] Bayerisches Fernsehen.

  • DVD, video, or film

    Ware Mädchen - Prostitution unter Zwang

    2014 - Nadya Luer and Jo Goll - RBB

    In-text: (Ware Mädchen - Prostitution unter Zwang, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Ware Mädchen - Prostitution unter Zwang. 2014. [film] RBB: Nadya Luer and Jo Goll.

  • Newspaper

    Wassermann, A.

    License to Exploit: Servant Abuse Case Could Challenge Diplomatic Immunity

    2011 - Spiegel Online International

    In-text: (Wassermann, 2011)

    Your Bibliography: Wassermann, A., 2011. License to Exploit: Servant Abuse Case Could Challenge Diplomatic Immunity. Spiegel Online International, [online] Available at: <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/license-to-exploit-servant-abuse-case-could-challenge-diplomatic-immunity-a-770685.html> [Accessed 21 March 2015].

  • Newspaper

    Wenkel, R.

    German GDP swells on sex, drugs and weapons

    2014 - Deutsche Welle

    In-text: (Wenkel, 2014)

    Your Bibliography: Wenkel, R., 2014. German GDP swells on sex, drugs and weapons. Deutsche Welle, [online] Available at: <http://www.dw.de/german-gdp-swells-on-sex-drugs-and-weapons/a-17853092> [Accessed 29 March 2015].

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