Guide: How to cite a Patent in Écoscience style

Guide: How to cite a Patent in Écoscience style

Cite A Patent in Écoscience style

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Use the following template to cite a patent using the Écoscience citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

Key:

Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the Écoscience style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Template:

Author Surname, A., Year Published. Title. Location.

Example:

Pletcher, M., E.  Vittinghoff, R.  Kalhan, J.  Richman, M.  Safford, S.  Sidney, F.  Lin & S.  Kertesz, 2012. Association Between Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Function Over 20 Years. JAMA, 307: 173.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Template

(Author Surname Year Published)

Example

Conclusion Occasional and low cumulative marijuana use was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function.

Exposure to tobacco smoke causes lung damage with clinical consequences that include respiratory symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer.1,2 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer are leading causes of death,2,3 and smoking tobacco cigarettes is the most important preventable cause of death in the United States.4,5

Marijuana smoke contains many of the same constituents as tobacco smoke,6 but it is unclear whether smoking marijuana causes pulmonary damage similar to that caused by tobacco. Prior studies of marijuana smokers have demonstrated consistent evidence of airway mucosal injury and inflammation7- 9 as well as increased respiratory symptoms such as cough, phlegm production, and wheeze, similar to that seen in tobacco smokers.10- 12 However, analyses of pulmonary function and lung disease have failed to detect clear adverse effects of marijuana use on pulmonary function.10- 13 It is possible that cumulative damage to the lungs from years of marijuana use could be masked by short-term effects; prior analyses have not attempted to disentangle these factors. Smoking marijuana is increasingly common in the United States,14 and understanding whether it causes lasting damage to lung function has important implications for public health messaging and medical use of marijuana.15,16 (Pletcher et al. 2012)

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