Guide: How to cite a Report in Harvard - Staffordshire University style

Guide: How to cite a Report in Harvard - Staffordshire University style

Cite A Report in Harvard - Staffordshire University style

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Use the following template to cite a report using the Harvard - Staffordshire University citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the Harvard - Staffordshire University style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. Series Number. [Online]. City: Publisher. Available from: http://Website URL. [Accessed: Date Accessed].


Davis Langdon Management Consulting, (2007). Final Guidance Life cycle costing (LCC) as a contribution to sustainable construction Guidance on the use of the LCC Methodology and its application in public procurement. Towards a common European methodology for Life Cycle Costing (LCC) – Guidance Document. European Commission.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.


(Author Surname, Year Published)


Life cycle costing (LCC) is a tool for assessing the total cost performance of an asset over
time, including the acquisition, operating, maintenance, and disposal costs. Its primary use is
in evaluating different options for achieving the client’s objectives, where those alternatives
differ not only in their initial costs, but also in their subsequent operational costs. Life cycle
costing techniques can be equally applied to major constructed assets or to the individual
components and materials from which they are constructed.
Life cycle costing is central to the current international drive to achieve better value for
money from the buildings and constructed assets we procure and use. Governments are
increasingly focusing on achieving better value from constructed assets and with this has
come a recognition that better value does not mean lowest capital cost alone. Instead, the
focus has shifted to the evaluation of all the costs and impacts of operating constructed assets
over their life cycle, and to minimising both the life cycle costs and the environmental
2.2 Benefits of using LCC
The life cycle costs over the life of an asset are widely acknowledged as a better indicator of
value for money than the initial acquisition/construction costs alone. For example, the costs
of owning and occupying an office building over a 30 year period are typically in the broad
ratio of 1 (construction costs) to 5 (maintenance costs) to 200 (cost of the operations being
carried out in the building, including staffing costs). It is therefore clear that a greater focus
on the maintenance and operating costs of assets rather than on capital costs alone, can
deliver significant long term financial and environmental benefits.
LCC is also a key element in the assessment of environmental sustainability in construction.
It provides a tool for the economic evaluation of alternative sustainability options exhibiting
different capital, operating costs or resource usage. It also provides methods for evaluating
the cost benefits of incorporating more sustainable options into constructed assets. The
interrelationship between LCC and environmental assessment is considered further in
Sections 2.5 and 2.6 below.
Clearly the specific benefits to be gained form carrying out a LCC analysis will depend on
the purpose of the exercise and the circumstances of the project, asset and client for which it
is undertaken. Typical benefits can include:
 Transparency of future operational costs
 Ability to plan for future expenditure (e.g. through the establishment of sinking funds).
 Improved awareness of total costs
 Ability to manipulate and optimise future costs at the design stages
 Achieving and demonstrating better value for money in projects
 Compliance with public sector procurement requirements
 Evaluation of competing options, either for entire assets or parts thereof
 Performance trade-offs against cost (e.g. environmental performance). (Davis Langdon Management Consulting, 2007)

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