Guide: How to cite a Presentation or lecture in The Design Journal style

Guide: How to cite a Presentation or lecture in The Design Journal style

Cite A Presentation or lecture in The Design Journal style

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Use the following template to cite a presentation or lecture using the The Design Journal citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the The Design Journal style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). 'Title'.


Li, G., Brady, J. and Chen, Q. (2013). 'Drug use and fatal motor vehicle crashes: A case-control study'. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60: 205-210.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.


(Author Surname, Year Published)


Results of this case-control analysis indicate that use of drugs, such as marijuana, narcotics, stimulants, and depressants, may more than double drivers’ risk of being involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes, irrespective of age, sex, time of the day, and geographic region. The heightened crash risk, however, appears to be dependent on the type of drugs used, with depressants conferring the highest risk, followed by stimulants, narcotics, and marijuana. The risk of fatal crash involvement is especially high when drugs are used in combination with alcohol. 

The estimated odds ratios of fatal motor vehicle crashes associated with different drugs reported in this population-based case-control analysis are generally consistent with previous studies (Bedard et al., 2007; Brault et al., 2004; Laumon et al., 2005; Mathijssen and Houwing, 2005; Movig et al., 2004; Mura et al., 2003). For instance, in a case-control study conducted in the Netherlands, Movig et al. (2004) found that 11.8% of the drivers who were seriously injured in crashes and 6.0% of the drivers who were not involved in crashes tested positive for marijuana, yielding an odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0). A study of drivers aged 18 to 69 years of age in Norway revealed that the incidence of crashes was more than two times higher for individuals the week after benzodiazepine-like hypnotics were dispensed compared to unexposed person time (Gustavsen et al., 2008). A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that motor vehicle crash risk for benzodiazepine users was 60–80% higher than for nonusers (Dassanayake et al., 2011). It is also evident that crash risk in drivers with depression is particularly high at the initiation of antidepressant treatment and when antidepressant treatment regimen changes (Orriols et al., 2012). 

The present study adds valuable evidence to a growing body of research on narcotic drugs and driving safety. Heightened crash risk has been linked to several commonly used narcotic drugs, including morphine, cocaine, heroin, and opiates (Gjerde et al., 2011; Kuypers et al., 2012; Mathijssen and Houwing, 2005; Movig et al., 2004; Mura et al., 2003). A recent epidemiologic study suggests that female drivers receiving methadone maintenance therapy are not at an increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes but male drivers are (Bramness et al., 2012). Similarly, therapeutic use of opioids appears to increase the risk of crash involvement in young drivers but not in older drivers (Dassanayake et al., 2011). One of the stimulant drugs, amphetamines can be extremely detrimental to driving safety, increasing the risk of driver fatality by over 25 fold (Hels et al., 2012). 

The possible interaction of drugs in combination with alcohol on driving safety has long been a concern (Gjerde and Kinn, 1991; Stramer and Bird, 1984). Toxicological testing data indicate that about 25% of drivers injured in motor vehicle crashes are positive for two or more substances, with alcohol and cannabis being the most common combination (Brady and Li, 2013; Kaplan et al., 2006; Romano and Voas, 2011; Walsh et al., 2005). Few epidemiologic studies, however, have assessed the interaction effect of alcohol and drugs on crash risk, due in part to the large sample sizes and considerable costs required (Bates and Blakely, 1999; Kelly et al., 2004; Walsh et al., 2005). This case-control study provides valuable data for better understanding the joint effect of alcohol and drugs on driving safety. Our results suggest that, when alcohol and drugs are used together, there is a modest negative interaction effect on the risk of fatal crash involvement on the multiplicative scale; relative to drivers testing negative for both alcohol and drugs,the estimated odds ratios of fatal crash involvement were  13.6 for those testing positive for alcohol only, 2.2 for those testing positive for drugs only, and 23.2 for those testing positive for both alcohol and drugs. Similar findings have been reported by other researchers examining the effects of alcohol and marijuana on driving performance and crash risk (Brault et al., 2004; Downey et al., 2013; Gadegbeku et al., 2011). 

Findings from this study should be interpreted with caution. First, the primary exposure measure in this study is drug use, determined by laboratory tests of specimens. A positive test indicates that the driver had used the drug detected but does not necessarily mean that the driver was impaired by the drug at the time of crash or survey. Variations in individual tolerance and pharmacological characteristics of different drugs make it diffi- cult to determine drug impairment (Alvarez and Del Rio, 2003; Goodnough and Zezima, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004a). There is no uniformly accepted definition of impairment for different drugs (Alvarez and Del Rio, 2003; Dupont, 2011; Dupont et al., 2012; Li et al., 2010;Ramaekers, 2003; The Walsh Group, 2002). Legal definitions of drug impairment differ from state to state. Some states have characterized impairment as substance use that reduces a driver’s ability to operate a vehicle safely by diminishing motor skills and reaction time and altering perception (Kelly et al., 2004; NIDA, 2010b). Because of the difficulties in determining drug impairment, a zero-tolerance approach, such as per se laws under which any detectable level of an illicit drug is regarded as prima facie evidence of driving under the influence, has been increasingly called on to control the epidemic of drugged driving (Dupont et al., 2012; Reisfield et al., 2012; Voas et al., 2013). (Li et al., 2013)

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