Guide: How to cite a Newspaper in Equine Veterinary Journal style

Guide: How to cite a Newspaper in Equine Veterinary Journal style

Cite A Newspaper in Equine Veterinary Journal style

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Use the following template to cite a newspaper using the Equine Veterinary Journal citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

Key:

Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the Equine Veterinary Journal style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Template:

1.Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published) Title. Publication Title Pages Used. http://Website-Url. Accessed October 10, 2013.

Example:

1.Pacula, R., Kilmer, B., Wagenaar, A., Chaloupka, F. and Caulkins, J. (2014) Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco. Am J Public Health 104, 1021-1028. http://radicalruss.com/docs/OHA-2014-07/Pacula%202014%20AJPH%20lessons%20for%20marijuana%20from%20al.pdf. Accessed April 27, 2015.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Template

[1]

Example

We have not taken a position about whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea or whether a particular perspective is more or less relevant. Rather, we have provided a starting point for the public health community to start thinking about how specific public and safety goals might be approached under a legal regime and the range of policy options that could be considered in light of them. We have focused on 5 objectives that we hear frequently discussed in legalization debates, and we discussed various regulatory approaches that have been shown to contribute to achieving similar objectives for tobacco and alcohol. 

Table 1 summarizes the discussion in “Insights From Alcohol and Tobacco,” linking specific regulatory approaches (in terms of evidence of effectiveness) to each of the 5 public health goals. The approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Furthermore, not all of these approaches influence specific goals in the same way or to the same magnitude. Some regulations target a particular behavior directly (e.g., higher prices to decrease youths’ use and dependence and impaired driving regulations to reduce drugged driving), whereas others do so indirectly (limits on products sold to reduce the appeal of products to children and, hence, youths’ use and future dependence). It is expected that larger effects will be observed when the links are direct or coupled with strong monitoring of compliance and enforcement. The alcohol and tobacco literature are germane to other issues raised by legalization, such as the design of an overall prevention strategy and strategies for minimizing the criminalization of youths. In some cases, lessons may translate easily because of similarities in the nature of the behaviors or substances (e.g., the continuum of lower risk to higher risk behavior with alcohol consumption or specific alcohol products). 

However, in other cases the parallels are imperfect. For example, the strategy of reaching a cooperative agreement with the industry self-restricting advertising is greatly complicated because the marijuana industry is highly fragmented, with many small firms instead of a few dominant players. So, although it is valuable to look to the tobacco and alcohol control models, one must be mindful of how the substances’ markets differ in terms of the behavior of users and the behavior of suppliers. Society has cycled through different policy approaches with alcohol and tobacco, with times of unregulated free markets, prohibition on production and sales (in the case of alcohol), and proactive regulation; so much can be learned from the experiences of regulating these substances. However, researchers and agencies must exert greater effort to help evaluate alternative strategies. In particular, more research is needed—and soon—on the relationship between alcohol and marijuana. Notably, one can find studies that support the conclusion that the goods are economic substitutes or that they are complements; the fact is that scientists are still grappling with this question and have not reached a consensus. Furthermore, past research simply does not address the current circumstance, as legalization of commercial marijuana production is unprecedented and could bring many changes (e.g., a substantial decline in marijuana price) that has not been part of the equation when evaluating previous policy changes. 

Greater effort needs to be given to data collection in states adopting legalization to assess the impact of regulations and how they are enforced on the use of intoxicating substances. Data tracking marijuana prices, marijuana potency, other cannabinoid constituents, methods of consumption (e.g., smoking a marijuana cigarette vs using e-cigarette---like devices with hash oil), youths’ exposure to advertising, commerce among youths, and the like, can provide valuable information for understanding the effects of these policies. Nevertheless, another lesson from the tobacco and alcohol experience is that the full implications of policy changes may not manifest within the first 10 years—let alone the first few years. There can be important consequences that accumulate slowly over time, through generational replacement and industry adaptation. 

Finally, even though the current science does not suggest marijuana is as harmful as alcohol or tobacco, there is general agreement among us that if a jurisdiction is going to experiment with something other than prohibition, a restrictive regulatory approach is preferred. (Note that it is possible to regulate while only allowing nonprofit producers and sellers. Jurisdictions have a choice about whether they want to allow for-profit companies to supply the market.) On the basis of the US experience with alcohol and tobacco, in which products were directly marketed and promoted to children, new products were developed to entice young users, and high outlet density led to normalized beliefs and increased use, it seems more prudent from a public health perspective to open up the marijuana market slowly, with tight controls to test the waters and prevent gross commercialization of the good too soon. If history is any guide, a laissez-faire approach could generate a large increase in misuse and consequent health and social problems. [1]

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