Guide: How to cite a Report in CSE N-Y style

Guide: How to cite a Report in CSE N-Y style

Cite A Report in CSE N-Y style

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Use the following template to cite a report using the CSE N-Y citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.

Key:

Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the CSE N-Y style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.

Template:

Author Surname Author Initial. Year Published. Title. City: Publisher.  [accessed 2013 Oct 10]. http://Website URL

Example:

Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 2010. Poorer children’s educational attainment: how important are attitudes and behaviour?. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.

Template

(Author Surname Year Published)

Example

Bad behaviour at school and engagement in certain risky behaviours (e.g. smoking) are associated with lower expectations for future HE attendance.

Young people from poor backgrounds are also more likely to experience frequent bullying at age 14 than young people from richer backgrounds.

It is interesting to observe that on average, young people are more likely to  experience negative than positive changes in their attitudes and their engagement in risky behaviours over this period: this means that there is a marked decline in teenage attitudes and behaviours between ages 14 and 16 across all socioeconomic groups. For example, a very large proportion of young people appear to stop liking school, in particular as they move from Year 9 into Year 10 (see Chowdry et al., 2010, for details).

Moreover, young people from poorer families are more likely to experience negative changes than young people from richer families. This means that the difference in attitudes and behaviours between young people from rich and poor backgrounds widens markedly over this period.  For example, young people from poorer families
are more likely to stop thinking they will get good marks, more likely to stop liking school and more likely to stop thinking that they will apply to university, than young people from richer families. Of particular note is a deterioration in expectations for HE among young people in the poorest fifth (particularly between Year 9 and Year 10 – see Chowdry et al., 2010), as somewhat more realistic expectations appear to
set in about their likely prospects for university.

Young people from poorer families are also more likely to start engaging in a range of risky behaviours (including frequent smoking and truancy) between ages 14 and 16 than young people from richer families, suggesting that the gap in engagement in risky behaviours also increases over time. One exception is in the incidence of antisocial behaviour, which typically falls between these ages, particularly among children from poorer families. 

To summarise, this section has shown that there are substantial differences between young people from rich and poor families in terms of their attitudes towards education, and their propensity to engage in a range of risky behaviours as teenagers.

Our report has shown a wealth of simple evidence that from the earliest of ages, poorer children experience much less advantageous environments at home than children from betteroff backgrounds, and that differences in these environments have a strong association with poor children’s lower cognitive development in early
childhood, and progressively poorer academic attainment through school

Putting this important point to one side for a moment, the evidence presented offers two major areas in which policy may make a contribution to reducing educational inequalities: 
1. Parents and the family home
• improving the home learning environment in poorer families (e.g. books and reading preschool, computers in teenage years); 
• helping parents from poorer families to believe that their own actions and efforts can lead to higher educational outcomes; 
• raising families’ aspirations and desire for advanced education – from primary schooling onwards; (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2010)

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