What is MHRA referencing?

MHRA referencing is a style of referencing developed by the Modern Humanities Research Association. It is intended primarily for use in connection with books and journals published by the Association but is also used in a wider context by students.

The third edition of the MHRA Style Guide is available to purchase in bookshops and online. If it’s the style you’ve been told to follow, make sure you do just that, as it’s what you’ll be marked on.

How to MHRA reference

Footnotes are of key importance to the MHRA referencing style. You should insert footnote numbers in your text every time you quote or paraphrase another person’s words or ideas. When referring to a source for the first time, you need to provide the full details in the footnote. After that, references can be provided in an abbreviated form.

You’ll also need to provide a full bibliography at the end of the essay, which needs to be carefully formatted according to the type of material you’ve cited – be it a book, journal, website, film or anything else. The bibliography only needs to include material that you’ve directly cited in your work.

MHRA referencing example

Footnote example:

Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

Bibliography example:

Cottrell, Stella, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)