What are Turabian citations?

Turabian citation is a system used by academics to show where another author’s finding or theory has contributed to their work. It is a simplified version of the Chicago referencing style and is named after Kate Turabian from the University of Chicago who wrote the style manual. Turabian style 8th edition is the latest available version and was originally intended for in-class assignments rather than for publications.

The system works by showing the reader where the author has used a finding, or theory from another source and author. This adds credibility to the paper and gives deserved credit to the original author.

How to create Turabian citations

When citing sources in Turabian style, you can use one of two different formats. The first is the Notes-Bibliography style, where a note is shown at the bottom of the page where the source has contributed and a full reference is given at the end of the paper.

The second is the Author-Date style, where a citation is shown within the sentence where the source is referenced and a full reference is listed at the end of the paper. Whichever style you choose; make sure you are consistent throughout your paper.

The format of a both types of Turabian references should change depending on the source type. For example, a book should be referenced differently to a website or journal article.

A lot to think about? You can generate your Turabian citations and references using Cite This For Me’s Turabian reference generator. Simply search for the book, journal or website you want to reference, set it to the correct style and have all of your Turabian references generated automatically for you.

Turabian citation examples


In-text citation example

(Cottrell 2013)

Bibliography example

Cottrell, Stella. 2013. The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.


Footnote citation example

Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

Bibliography example

Cottrell, Stella. The Study Skills Handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.