Even though we live in an increasingly digital world, it’s still likely that the reference you’ll need to cite the most is the humble book. Whether you’re an English major quoting Shakespeare, or you’re using a textbook to research a topic, there’ll always be a place for books in every student’s stash of sources.
We know that any source used while researching and writing academic papers must be referenced—and that not doing so could amount to accidental plagiarism—but the exact format used will depend on the required style of citation.
APA, MLA and Chicago are all common citation styles, although there are many others such as Harvard Referencing (typically used within the areas of business and law). The required style is often subject-specific, but if you’re at all unsure, your instructor is the best person to ask.
Let’s look at the basics of a general book citation.
When conducting research, ensure that you note the following pieces of information for every book that you use. We’ve used the classic fiction book Of Mice And Men as an example:
If you have additional information that may be relevant—for example, the edition of the book, the translator, etc.—you can also add it. Include anything that you feel will help the reader to identify your source easily and accurately.
As well as including full citations on your works cited page, you will also usually have to include in-text citations within the body of your work to mark where you have used the source. Remember that citations are not just used when quoting directly from a text. You also need to reference any paraphrased or general ideas that are not your own. How you format an in-text citation also varies, depending on the required style.
Let’s take a look at some examples of how to cite a book in MLA, APA and Chicago styles.
(Steinbeck, 2006, p. 12)
Steinbeck, J. (2006). Of mice and men. Penguin.
Steinbeck, John. Of Mice And Men. Penguin, 2006.
(Steinbeck 2006, 12)
Steinbeck, John. 2006. Of Mice And Men. London: Penguin.
Footnote (with a numerical marker in the text):
John Steinbeck, Of Mice And Men (London: Penguin, 2006), 12.
Steinbeck, John. Of Mice And Men. London: Penguin, 2006.
Don’t get the book thrown at you for incorrect citations! The online tools at Cite This For Me make creating book citations easy.
Bibliography entries of comic books are cited in the same way as regular books. The citation must include the author’s name(s), book title, publisher location and name, and the publication year.
Azzarello, Brian, and Meredith Finch. Wonder Woman. New York: DC Comics, 2011.
The footnote for a comic book is formatted the same way one for a regular book. The footnote includes the author’s name(s), book title, publisher location and name, and the publication year. If relevant, include a page number. Remember to only invert the first author’s name in the bibliography entry, not the footnote.
Brian Azzarello and Meredith Finch, Wonder Woman (New York: DC Comics, 2011), 10.