What is Vancouver referencing?

Vancouver referencing is an author-number citation style used widely in the scientific and medical disciplines. The Vancouver system was created in 1978 as a way of standardising and clarifying the formatting in its related fields, to make things as clear as possible for the reader.

How to Vancouver reference

There are many variations within the Vancouver style, so it’s important to find out exactly which version your academic institution expects. In Vancouver citation, a number is assigned to each reference as it is used. The original number assigned to the reference is used each time that reference is cited in the text.

References are also listed in numerical order in a bibliography at the end of the essay. The number can be placed either outside or inside the text punctuation and you’ll need to check with your academic institution to find out which style they prefer.

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Vancouver referencing example

In-text example:

Recent research indicates that the number of duplicate papers being published is increasing.(1)

Bibliography example:

1. Cottrell S. The study skills handbook. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.

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