Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in NLM style

Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in NLM style

Cite A Conference proceedings in NLM style

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Use the following template to cite a conference proceedings using the NLM citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the NLM style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


1. Author Surname Author Initial. Title. Publication Title [Internet]. City: Publisher; Year Published [cited 2013 Oct 10]. p. Pages Used. Available from: http://Website URL


1. The Cost and Effectiveness of Policies to Reduce  Vehicle Emissions. Discussion Paper #2008-9. Paris: International Transport Forum; 2008. p. 3,7. 

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.




There are two general arguments to motivatecombining fuel economy regulations and 
fuel taxes. First, if prevailing levels of fueltaxes fail to stimulate the desired level of reduction in fuel consumption, and if increasing taxes is not politically feasible for the foreseeable future, regulating fuel economy is attractive. Using regulations may be a more costly way of  reaching targets, but this approach trades off these costs against political expediency. 
The main arguments in favor of fuel economy standards, even when fuel taxes exist and 
are high, are as follows: 
 (1)  Taking current policy preferences as given, standards are more politically palatable 
than (even) higher taxes. The trade-off between lower political costs and higher 
economic costs becomes less of a concern when elasticities of the demand for 
driving are low because better fuel economy triggers only limited additional driving in 
that case (section 2.2). 
 (2)  Carbon or fuel taxes are not sufficient toalign consumer choices with the socially 
desirable choices as their influence on some choices is only very indirect. 
Specifically, standards improve choices of vehicle fuel economy, but they affect only 
new vehicles so that it takes 15 to 20 years before their full impact on fuel 
consumption is realised (section 2.3). [1]

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