The Harvard style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people’s quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws. The popular format is typically used in assignments and publications for humanities as well as natural, social and behavioural sciences.
It is a parenthetical referencing system that is made up of two main components:
Whilst in-text references are used to briefly indicate where you have directly quoted or paraphrased a source, your reference list is an alphabetised list of complete Harvard references that enables your reader to locate each source with ease. Each entry should be keyed to a corresponding parenthetical reference in the main body of your work, so that a reader can take an in-text citation and quickly retrieve the source from your reference list.
Note that some universities, and certain disciplines, may also require you to provide a bibliography. This is a detailed list of all of the material you have consulted throughout your research and preparation, and it will demonstrate the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.
‘Harvard referencing’ is an umbrella term for any referencing style that uses the author name and year of publication within the text to indicate where you have inserted a source. This author-date system appeals to both authors and readers of academic work. Scholars find the Harvard format an economical way of writing, and it is generally more accessible to the reader as there are no footnotes crowding the page. Only the name of the author, the publication date of the source and, if necessary, the page numbers are included in the parenthetical references, for example: (Joyce, 2008).
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The following guide provides you with everything you need to know to do justice to all your hard work and get a mark that reflects those sleepless nights. If you’re not sure how to format your Harvard references, what citations are, or are simply curious about Cite This For Me’s referencing generator, our guide will answer all of your questions whilst offering you a comprehensive introduction to the Harvard style. Keep reading to find out why you need to use a referencing system, how to add references in the body of your assignment, and how to compile a reference list.
Sometimes, students do not encounter referencing until they embark onto degree-level studies, yet it is a crucial academic skill that will propel you towards establishing yourself in the academic community. It’s a common mistake to leave citing and creating a complete and accurate bibliography until the very last minute, with Cite This For Me’s Harvard referencing generator you can cite-as-you-go.
So, if you need a helping hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s automated referencing generator? The generator accesses knowledge from across the web, assembling all of the relevant information into a fully-formatted reference list that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work. Using this generator to cite your sources in Harvard referencing enables you to cross the finishing line in style.
It is important to bear in mind that there is a plethora of different referencing styles out there – the use of any particular one depends on the preference of your university, subject, professor or the publication you are submitting the work to. If you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your tutor and follow their guidelines. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use a particular style, we recommend using Harvard referencing because it is simple to use and easy to learn.
The powerful open-access generator above will create your references in the ‘Harvard Cite Them Right (9th Edition)’ format as standard, but it can auto-generate references in 1,000+ styles. So, whether your professor has asked you to adopt APA referencing, or your discipline requires you to use AMA or MLA, we have the style you need. To accurately create references in a specific format, simply sign up to Cite This For Me for free and select your chosen style.
Are you struggling with referencing an unfamiliar source type? Or feeling confused about whether to cite a piece of common knowledge? This guide will provide you with everything you need to get both your parenthetical Harvard references and reference list completed quickly and accurately.
Harvard referencing can be a confusing task, especially if you are new to the concept, but it’s absolutely essential. In fact, accurate and complete referencing can mean the difference between reaching your academic goals and damaging your reputation amongst scholars. Simply put – referencing is the citing of sources you have utilised to support your essay, research, conference or article etc.
Even if you are using our Harvard generator, understanding why you need to reference will go a long way in helping you to naturally integrate the process into your research and writing routine.
Firstly, whenever another source contributes to your work you must give the original author the appropriate credit in order to avoid plagiarism, even when you have completely reworded the information. The only exception to this rule is common knowledge – e.g. London is the capital city of England. Whilst plagiarism is not always intentional, it is easy to accidentally plagiarise your work when you are under pressure from imminent deadlines, you have managed your time ineffectively, or if you lack confidence when putting ideas into your own words. The consequences can be severe; deduction of marks at best, expulsion from university or legal action from the original author at worst. Find out more here.
This may sound overwhelming, but plagiarism can be easily avoided by using our Harvard referencing generator and carrying out your research and written work thoughtfully and responsibly. We have compiled a handy checklist to follow whilst you are working on an assignment.
How to avoid plagiarism:
If you carefully check your college or publisher’s advice and guidelines on citing and stick to this checklist, you should be confident that you will not be accused of plagiarism.
Secondly, proving that your writing is informed by appropriate academic reading will enhance your work’s authenticity. Academic writing values original thought that analyses and builds upon the ideas of other scholars. It is therefore important to use a Harvard referencing generator to accurately signpost where you have used someone else’s ideas in order to show that your writing is based on knowledge and informed by appropriate academic reading. This will show your reader that you have delved deeply into your chosen topic and supported your thesis with expert opinions.
Here at Cite This For Me we understand how precious your time is, which is why we created our Harvard reference generator and guide to help relieve the unnecessary stress of referencing. Escape assignment-hell and give yourself more time to focus on the content of your work by using Cite This For Me’s reference management tool.
In-text Harvard references are the perfect way to seamlessly integrate sources into your work, allowing you to strengthen the connection between your own ideas, and the source material that you have found, with ease. It is worth noting that in-text references must be included in your assignment’s final word count.
When adopting Harvard style referencing in your work, if you are inserting a quote, statement, statistic or any other kind of source information into the main body of your essay you should:
There are many assumptions when it comes to the information processing approach to cognition… (Lutz and Huitt, 2004).
In the overview of these developmental theories, Lutz and Huitt (2004) suggest that…
“…the development of meaning is more important than the acquisition of a large set of knowledge or skills …” (Lutz and Huitt, 2004, p. 8), which means that …
“…the findings proved that a large sample size was needed in order to attain conclusive test results” (Downington et al., 2019).
Fong’s 1987 study (cited in Bertram 1997) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people…
Older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people (Fong, cited in Bertram 1997).
“Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son of Nimshi conspired against Joram” (Kings 2: 14).
Why use a Harvard referencing tool? As well as saving you valuable time, the Cite This For Me generator could help enable you to easily avoid common errors when formatting your in-text citations. So, if you’re looking for an easy way to credit your source material, simply login to your Cite This For Me account, select ‘Harvard – Cite Them Right 10th Edition’, then ‘Create reference’, to copy, save and export your in-text references instantly.
Utilising and building on a wide range of relevant sources is a guaranteed way of impressing your reader, and a comprehensive list of the source material you have used is the perfect platform to exhibit your research efforts. A reference list is always required when you cite other people’s work within your assignment, and the brief in-text Harvard references in your work should directly link to your reference list.
As a general rule a reference list includes every source that you have cited in your work, whilst a bibliography also contains any relevant background reading which you have consulted (even those sources that are never mentioned in the narrative). Your bibliography should start on its own page, with the same formatting as the rest of the paper and aligned to the left with the sources listed alphabetically. Many people use the terms ‘reference list’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably, and if you are using Harvard referencing you may be required to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, so be sure to check this with your tutor.
Follow these guidelines when compiling your reference list:
Creating and managing your reference list with the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing generator will help change the way you reference and conduct research.
Reference list / bibliography examples:
Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project. 5th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Hawking, S.W. (1998) A brief history of time: From the big bang to black holes. 10th edn. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group.
Create a reference for the translated book, not the original piece.
Descartes, R. (1991) Principles of philosophy. Translated by V. R. and R. P. Miller. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
If all information resembles a book, use the template for a book reference
If a page number is unavailable, use chapter number. URL links are not necessary, but can be useful. When including a URL, include the date the book was downloaded at the end of the Harvard reference:
Available at: URL (Downloaded: DD Month YYYY)
Shakoor, S. et al. (2011) ‘A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), pp. 254–261. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02488.x.
*Note that similar to your in-text references, multiple authors must be reduced to ‘et al.’ in the reference list.
Written by a company:
UNICEF Australia (2019) Water, sanitation, and hygiene. Available at https://www.unicef.org.au/our-work/unicef-overseas/water-sanitation-hygiene (Accessed 12 November 2019).
Place the year the web page was published or last updated in parentheses following the name of the organisation. At the end of the reference, include the date the page was accessed.
Written by an individual author or group of authors:
Include all author name(s) at the beginning of the reference.
Steen, M. (2018) Recycled drinking water, we look at the myths, the facts and whether it’s safe to drink. Available at https://www.choice.com.au/food-and-drink/drinks/water/articles/recycled-drinking-water (Accessed 18 November 2019).
Drogen, E. (2014) ‘Changing how we think about war: The role of psychology’, The British Psychological Society 2014 Annual Conference. The ICC, Birmingham British Psychological Society, 07-09 May 2014.
Are you struggling to find the publication information to complete a reference? Did you know that our referencing generator can help you?
Time is of the essence when you’re finishing a paper, but there’s no need to panic because you can compile your reference list in a matter clicks using the Cite This For Me Harvard referencing tool. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your reference list straight from the generator.
Accurate referencing doesn’t only protect your work from plagiarism – presenting your source material in a consistent and clear way also enhances the readability of your work. Closely follow the Harvard referencing system’s formatting rules on font type, font size, text-alignment and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Before submitting your work check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference list – according to the style’s formatting guidelines.
How to format in Harvard referencing:
Even when using a Harvard referencing generator, always check with your professor for specified guidelines – there is no unified ‘Harvard style’ for the formatting of a paper. Make sure that you apply the recommended formatting rules consistently throughout your work.
The author-date system is attributed to eminent zoologist Edward Laurens Mark (1847-1946), Hersey professor of anatomy and director of Harvard’s zoological laboratory. It is widely agreed that the first evidence of Harvard referencing can be traced back to Mark’s landmark cytological paper (Chernin, 1988). The paper breaks away from previous uses of inconsistent and makeshift footnotes through its use of a parenthetical author-date reference accompanied by an explanatory footnote.
[…] The appearance may be due solely to reflection from the body itself. (Comp. Flemming, ‘78b, p. 310.*)
*The numbers immediately following an author’s name serve the double purpose of referring the reader to the list (p. 591) where the titles of papers are given, and of informing him at once of the approximate date of the paper in question.
A tribute dedicated to Mark in 1903 by 140 students credits Mark’s paper with having ‘introduced into zoology a proper fullness and accuracy of citation and a convenient and uniform method of referring from text to bibliography’ (Parker, 1903). Today Harvard referencing is widely considered one of the most accessible styles and, although it originated in biology, these days it is used across most subjects – particularly in the humanities, history and social science. This guide provides guidance on using the style, but is not officially associated with it.
Due to its simplicity and ease of use, the Harvard format has become one of the most widely adopted referencing styles in the world. However, many universities offer their own unique Harvard style guide, and each has its own nuances when it comes to punctuation, order of information and formatting rules. UK university-specific styles are all available via the Cite This For Me generator – simply go to the Cite This For Me website to login to your Cite This For Me account and search for the version you need. Make sure you apply consistency throughout your work.
It is increasingly easy for writers to access information and knowledge via the internet, and in turn both the Harvard style guidelines and our citation generator are continually updated to include developments in electronic publishing. The Cite This For Me Harvard generator currently uses the ‘Harvard Cite Them Right 10th Edition’, which has evolved in recent years to match the rapidly advancing digital age. In order to avoid plagiarism, you must be cautious about pulling information from the Internet, and ensure that you accurately reference all source material used in your written work – including all online sources that have contributed to your research.
Key differences from previous Harvard referencing Cite Them Right editions:
These days students draw on a diverse range of digital sources to support their written work. Whether you are citing a hashtag on Instagram, a podcast or a mobile app, the Cite This For Me Harvard reference generator will help you create your references; and there are so many source types you can cite! So don’t be held back by sources that are difficult to cite – locating unusual source material will help your work to stand out from the crowd.
Creating complete and correctly formatted references can be a challenge for many writers, especially when documenting multiple source types. Our primary goal at Cite This For Me is to offer support to students and researchers across the globe by transforming the way in which they perceive referencing. We hope that after using our generator and reading this Harvard referencing style guide, what was once considered an arduous process, will be viewed as a highly valued skill that enhances the quality of your work.
Disheartened by the stressful process of referencing? Got a fast-approaching deadline? Using the Cite This For Me accessible and free generator makes creating accurate references easier, leaving more time for you to focus on achieving your academic goals.
Create an account to add and edit references on the spot, import and export full projects or individual entries, utilise our add-ons and save your work in the cloud. Harvard referencing gets even easier with Cite This For Me for Chrome – an intuitive, handy browser extension that allows you to create and edit a reference whilst you browse the web. Use the extension on any webpage that you want to reference, and add it to your chosen project without interrupting your workflow.
The Cite This For Me reference management tool is here to help you, so what are you waiting for? Easy and accurate Harvard referencing is just a click away!
Chernin, E. (1988) The ‘Harvard System’: A mystery dispelled. Available at: http://www.uefap.com/writing/referenc/harvard.pdf (Accessed: 4 July 2016).
Parker, G. (ed.) (1903) Mark anniversary volume. New York: Henry Holt.
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