Introduction to Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing: Free Tool

Harvard Referencing: Guide

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Harvard is a style of referencing, primarily used by university students, to cite information sources.

Two types of citations are included:

  1. In-text citations are used when directly quoting or paraphrasing a source. They are located in the body of the work and contain a fragment of the full citation.

    Depending on the source type, some Harvard Reference in-text citations may look something like this:

    "After that I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).

  2. Reference Lists are located at the end of the work and display full citations for sources used in the assignment.

    Here is an example of a full citation for a book found in a Harvard Reference list:

    Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.


Harvard Reference List Overview

Reference lists are created to allow readers to locate original sources themselves. Each citation in a reference list includes various pieces of information including the:

  1. Name of the author(s)
  2. Year published
  3. Title
  4. City published
  5. Publisher
  6. Pages used

Generally, Harvard Reference List citations follow this format:

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

If there are multiple sources by the same author, then citations are listed in order by the date of publication.

If you’d like more information about Harvard Reference Lists, visit Anglia Ruskin University’s guide

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with One Author

The structure for a Harvard Reference List citation for books with one author includes the following:

If the edition isn’t listed, it is safe to assume that it is the first addition, and does not need to be included in the citation.

Example: One author AND first edition:

Example: One author AND NOT the first edition

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References for books quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Books with Two or More Authors

When creating a citation that has more than one author, place the names in the order in which they appear on the source. Use the word “and” to separate the names.

Example:

* remember, when citing a book, only include the edition if it is NOT the first edition!

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If you need clarification, La Trobe University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Chapters in Edited Books

When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format:

* When citing a chapter in an edited book, the edition is displayed, even when it is the first edition.

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If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Multiple Works By The Same Author

When there are multiple works by the same author, place the citations in order by year. When sources are published in the same year, place them in alphabetical order by the title.

Example:

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If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Journal Articles

The standard structure of a print journal citation includes the following components:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard references citations for journals quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website

When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium ([online]), the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.

Structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Newspaper Articles

When citing a newspaper, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Newspaper Articles Found on a Database or a Website

To cite a newspaper found either on a database or a website, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Magazines

When citing magazines, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Websites

When citing a website, use the following structure:

When no author is listed, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for eBooks and PDFs

When citing eBooks and PDFs, include the edition, even if it’s the first edition, and follow it with the type of resource in brackets (either [ebook] or [pdf]). Include the url at the end of the citation with the date it was accessed in brackets.

Use the following structure:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for ebooks and pdfs quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Archive Material

Archival materials are information sources that are used to provide evidence of past events. Archival materials are generally collected and housed by organizations, such as universities, libraries, repositories, or historical societies. Examples can include manuscripts, letters, diaries, or any other artifact that the organization decides to collect and house.

The structure for archival materials includes:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for archive material quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, Staffordshire University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Artwork

To cite artwork, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, RMIT University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Blogs

Blogs are regularly updated webpages that are generally run by an individual.

When citing a blog post, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Broadcasts

To cite a radio or tv broadcast, use the following structure:

Examples:

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If you need clarification, The University of New South Wales has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings are academic papers or presentations that are created or used for the purpose of a meeting or conference.

Use the following structure to cite a conference proceeding:

If published online:

If not published online:

Examples:

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If you need clarification, Southern Cross University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Court Cases

To cite a court case, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dictionary Entry

When citing a dictionary entry in print, use the following structure:

When citing a dictionary entry found online, use the following structure:

**If no author/editor/or contributor is given, omit it from the citation.
**If the publishing year is unavailable, use the abbreviation n.d., which stands for no date

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for dictionary entries quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Dissertations

A dissertation is a lengthy paper or project, generally created as a requirement to obtain a doctoral degree.

Use the following structure to create a citation for a dissertation:

Example:

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If you need clarification, Southampton Solent University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for DVD, Video, and Film

When citing a DVD, Video, or Film, use the following format:

**The place of origin refers to the place where the dvd, film, or video was made. Eg: Hollywood
**The film maker can be the director, studio, or main producer.

Example:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for DVDs, video, and films quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Emails

Email citations use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, University of Southern Queensland has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Print Encyclopedia Articles

An encyclopedia is a book, or set of books, used to find information on a variety of subjects. Most encyclopedias are organized in alphabetical order.

Use this format to cite an encyclopedia:

Example:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for encyclopedia articles quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Tasmania has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Government Publications

Government publications consist of documents that are issued by local, state, or federal governments, offices, or subdivisions.

Use the following format to cite the government publications:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for government publications quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Interviews

When citing an interview, use the following format:

Example

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If you need clarification, University of Liverpool has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Music or Recordings

To cite a music piece or recording, use the following format:

When citing a music piece or recording found online, use the following structure:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for music or recordings quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Online Images or Videos

To cite an image or video found electronically, use the following structure:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for online images or videos quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, The University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Patents

When citing patents, use the following structure:

**It should be noted that even if the information is found online, no online information needs to be included.

Example:

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If you need clarification, The University of Western Australia has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Podcasts

When citing a podcast, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, De Montfort University Leicester has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Presentations and Lectures

To cite a presentation or lecture, use the following structure:

Example:

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If you need clarification, Birmingham City University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Press Releases

When citing a press release in print, use the following format:

If found online, use the following format:

Examples:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard reference citations for press releases quickly and easily.

If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Religious Texts

To cite any type of religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, Quran, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, Manchester Metropolitan University has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Reports

When citing a report, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, University of Leeds has additional information.

Harvard Reference List Citations for Software

When citing software, use the following format:

Example:

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If you need clarification, University of Bedfordshire has additional information.


Harvard In-Text Citations Overview

Students use in-text citations to indicate the specific parts of their paper that were paraphrased or quoted directly from a source.

Each in-text citation generally displays the last name of the author and the year the source was published.

The in-text citation is usually located at the end of the quoted or paraphrased sentence.

In-Text Citations for One Author

The author’s last name and the year that the source was published are placed in the parentheses.

Example:

If the author’s name is already used in the body of the text, then students should exclude it from the in-text citation.

Example:

In-Text Citations for Two or Three Authors

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ names in the order in which they appear on the source, with the word and separating them.

Examples:

In-Text Citations for Four or More Authors

Only use the first listed author’s name in the in-text citation, followed by “et al.” and the publishing year.

Example:

Example:

In-Text Citations for Corporate Authors

Use the name of the organization in place of the author.

Example:

If the name of the organization is used in the text, place only the year in parentheses.

Example:

In-Text Citations for No Author

When an author’s name cannot be found, place the title of the text in the parentheses, followed by the publishing year.

Example:

In-Text Citations With No Date

When a date is not included in a source, simply omit that information from the in-text citation.

Example:

Don’t forget, Cite This For Me allows you to generate Harvard References quickly and accurately.

If you need clarification, Anglia Ruskin University has additional information.


Need more example reference of Harvard style. Click here.

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